|Welcome to HIS 274 online! My name is Edith Shaked. I will be your instructor. This is an online version of a successful classroom course I taught at Downtown Campus, Community Campus, and at Davis Monthan Base. I developed this course in such a way to facilitate and ensure student’s success. All my students have successfully passed the class, because they diligently fulfilled all their requirements.|
A History of the Holocaust
Yehuda Bauer, RVISED Edition 2002. ISBN 0-531-15576-5
Elie Wiesel, New York: Bantham, 1982
books are paperback. They are available at Pima Community College
Bookstore. The PCC bookstore can be accessed and books ordered via
Online Lectures (OL), Study Guides (SG). Edith
Using the SG on your own will enhance your understanding of the material and facilitate your success in this class. The “Focus/Review/Discussion Questions” , are designed to help guide your reading and understanding of the material, and to help you focus on the important topics; knowing the answers will help you in writing ALL your assignments and pass the tests. I suggest that students do the multiple-choice questions and the “Define/Identify” parts of each SG, as the tests will be based on them.
You may want to PRINT Shaked’s lectures and Study Guides, because they complement the book of Bauer, and they include information from many sources. They will help you for your work.
The course assumes no prior knowledge of either Jewish history and Judaism, the history of antisemitism, or the Holocaust. Rather, it sets out to provide an introductory historical understanding of these issues. The course is also intended to assist teachers in preparing their own courses on the Holocaust.
May their voice never be silenced
May your voice be heard
Remember and speak up for all-inclusiveness and equal dignity and equality
"I have learned that whenever a community is threatened, all are affected. Whenever a single human being is humiliated, the human image is cheapened. Whenever a person suffers for whatever the reason and no one is there to offer a hand, a smile, a gift, a memory, a smile again, something is wrong with society at large." (Elie Wiesel)
Causes and legacies of the Nazi assault on humanity. Includes the history of hate in Europe, historical antecedents and preconditions, Third Reich and creation of the racial state, form isolation to the "Final Solution", aftermath (1945-) and the Holocaust and relevant events.
The Holocaust refers to the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored massacre of European Jewry, and the attempt to annihilate the Jewish people, from France in the west to the Soviet Union in the east, and from Latvia in the north to French North Africa and Italian Libya in the south, during the Holocaust era, 1933-45. The Hebrew term Sho’ah is also used to describe the murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. Although Jews were the primary victims, millions of others labeled "undesirable," "enemies of the state," or "subhuman" were also murdered. Some groups were targeted because of their perceived "racial inferiority": Roma (Gypsies), the physically and mentally challenged, the "Black," African-American and Jewish American soldiers, and some of the Slavic people (Poles, Russians, and others). Other groups were persecuted and murdered on political and behavioral grounds, among them political dissidents (Communists, Socialists, and trade unionists), religious dissidents (such as Jehovah's Witnesses), and homosexuals (Sources: Encyclopedia of the Holocaust; web sites of the museums of Yad Vashem, the Museum of Tolerance -Wiesenthal Center, and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum).
The Holocaust stands as a landmark of man’s faculty for evil. It is about the extreme outcome of institutionalized prejudice and policies of exclusion, and violations of human rights of the "other." The Holocaust is considered a watershed event in modern history, a defining moment in European and world history, in its specificity, a symbol for genocide, mass murder, racism, hatred of foreigners, and hatred of the other.
This course will examine and discuss the historical preconditions, ideologies, causes, events and processes which culminated in the Holocaust - How a society could get to this point. We will attempt to document and analyze this event and what it represents in its proper historical context, and from a variety of disciplines, exploring the inter-relationships between the perpetrators, the victims, and the bystanders. In the view of many commentators, it was the interaction of these categories of people that made possible this unthinkable episode in human history. It is hoped that by the end of the course, you should have a better sense of the context in which the Holocaust must be understood, and have some answers to the question "How did it happen?"
This case study of genocide provides examples of the use of law, medicine, bureaucracy, and modern technology without moral or ethical grounds. It is about ordinary people doing extraordinary evil. "The Holocaust has been seen as an event that fundamentally challenges the foundations upon which human civilization rests. It has generated a credibility crisis of major proportions in our most basic assumptions about the nature of humankind and of society, of the modern stated, and of our responsibilities as citizens of the world to speak up and act to stop the unjust suffering of innocent people everywhere." (Yad Vashem - why teach the Holocaust)
The meaning and impact of the Holocaust on our society and our world will be explored through history, with emphasis on equal dignity, ethics, tolerance, equity in diversity and pluralism, democratic inclusion and human understanding. Through movies, readings, documents, electronic discussions, and writings, we will discuss the behavior and perspectives of perpetrators, survivors, bystanders, and ourselves as students, while seeking to understand the nature of this twentieth century event and its significance. Through study of works by survivor-memoirists, we will encounter the lived experience of individuals who survived the concentration camp world.
"Understanding the Holocaust leads to understanding hate. Studying the rise of the Nazis and their extermination of the Jews and other undesirables is an exploration into how ordinary people can, through mass persuasion and social structural constraints, be led into committing genocide." Milton Meltzer observes, ‘that it happened once, unbelievable, as it seems, means that it could happen again. Hitler made it a possibility for anyone. Neither the Jews nor any other group on earth can feel safe from that crime in the future."
The Holocaust, ultimately, teaches valuable lessons about human nature and society. The educational and moral lessons of the Holocaust have been summed up by Professor Yehuda Bauer, the Academic Advisor to the task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, in the following memorable three-point prohibition:
"Do not be a perpetrator
Do not be a victim
Do not be a bystander." Be vigilant and speak-up.
Our understanding of genocide leads us to an appreciation of the necessity for equal dignity and equal rights for everyone, for maintaining tolerance of people diversity, and a refusal to let hate-based policies of small groups become the policy of a nation. It is crucial that, through the examination of the extreme results of prejudice, intolerance of "the others," ethnocentrism, we begin to understand our individual and corporate responsibilities for moral and ethical acceptance of diverse peoples and perspectives.
1. Describe and explain the history of hate in Europe, modern antisemitism in the 19th century, the origins of racism, and the social, political, economic and cultural developments that helped create a climate in which the Holocaust could occur (Describe and explain how the Holocaust is the extreme outcome of institutionalized prejudice, antisemitism and racism).The information below gives an overview of how coursework will be scheduled. This information may change as the semester progresses. For current details about assignments and deadlines, please see the "Calendar" inside the course website. Work starts in the course on the very first class day of the semester.
2. Describe and explain the rise of the Nazi Party, Hitler's synthesis, the creation of the racial state-the Third Reich, and the responses to its actions, during the prewar period (1933-1939).
3. Describe and explain the processes which culminated in genocide-from isolation to the "Final Solution," and the reactions to the Holocaust, exploring the inter-relationships between the perpetrators, the victims, the rescuers, the bystanders and the resisters (1939-45).
4. Describe and explain the aftermath (1945- ) i.e. the death marches, the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials, the United Nation's Genocide Convention, and the return or resettlement of the Jews.
5. Describe and explain the implications of the Holocaust for relevant events i.e. the contemporary episodes of "ethnic cleansing" such as Bosnia-Herzegovina, American Indian Genocide, etc., racism, value of diversity, and the legacy for the future.
This is NOT a self-pace course. Students must fulfill ALL the requirements listed above by the DEADLINES listed in "Calendar." There is no "catching-up." In order to complete HIS 274 successfully, Pima Community College students must receive a passing grade, "D" (60%) by the end of the semester.
In the "Online Hub" section of the Community Campus web page there are links to "learning-online" guides, Power Point slide presentations, self-assessment quizzes, and an "Introduction to WebCT" course management system. Use these resources to help you navigate the technology of WebCT.
Students must read the assigned materials (in Bauer and Shaked’s online lectures) by the week and module number it is listed under. See "Course Schedule/Outline" at the end of this syllabus. See also “Calendar” and click on the relevant weekly module for more details. I suggest that you test yourself by going over the questions in the relevant Study Guides (SG); they will help you to succeed in this course.
To assist preparation for discussion, students will do the homework in the relevant study guides, completing ONLY Part I and II (the "Define" and the "multiple-choice" sections) of the assigned study guides. The "Focus/study Questions" in the study guides, are designed to help guide your reading and understanding of the material, and to help you focus on the important topics. Using the study guides on your own will enhance your understanding of the material and facilitate your success in this class.
If you have any disabling condition that I should be aware of in order to better meet your individual learning needs, please do not hesitate to inform me. In order to ensure full class participation, any student with a disabling condition is strongly encouraged to contact me at the beginning of the course.
Every week, except the last one, students must post two complete answers, in an essay format, to two discussion questions titled "Discussion Questions" (DQ). PRINT the documents "Discussion Questions" and "Instructions for DQ" in "Instructor's Announcements" in link from 'Discussions.' In addition, every week, except the last one, every student is required to post a one paragraph response to a classmate’s answer. ALL comments/answers for the week/module must be posted by the deadline in Calendar. The instructor will monitor the discussion and may or may not comment. No personal attacks or insults will be tolerated.
Discussion board assignments provide maximum flexibility because you do not have to be online at the same time as another person, and you can read what other students have written. Class discussion will greatly enhance your understanding of the material of the course. The Discussion Questions (DQ) also help you prepare for the test.
Evaluation of your participation will be based upon you having read the required material, and expressing your thoughts. Students, who copy the answers from another student or other sources, will get an F.
Every week, except the last one, students must submit one response paper (RP), as per deadline in Calendar. PRINT the documents "Questions for RP" and "Instructions for RP" in "Instructor's Announcements."
The response papers (RP) are designed to provide you with an opportunity to integrate and respond to information presented in the readings. Each answer should represent a synthesis/analysis of the information. Each response paper is to be about two pages in length, depending on the question. Response papers will be worth 40 percent of your final grade.
The quizzes will consist of multiple-choice questions. The multiple-choice questions are drawn directly from Shaked's Study Guides (SG), so that students who take the time to do the multiple-choice questions in the SG, are rewarded with familiar test questions. Tests are time limited, so please don’t rely on finding information in the text as you take the test.
All quizzes must be taken on the dates scheduled, and as per Calendar. In case of an emergency, the instructor must be notified. No make-up tests will be given if you fail to notify and discuss your situation with the instructor. It is up to the instructor's discretion whether to offer or not offer an alternative to the test.
Any student caught cheating or collaborating will be given a zero on the exam and placed on academic probation. Students are expected to abide by the Student Code of Conduct and the Scholastic Code of Conduct, http://www.pima.edu/~coadmissions/stud_rights_conduct.html
Turn-Ins - Although Distance Learning provides you with a flexible schedule to meet your professional, personal and academic responsibilities, you are expected to follow the Class Schedule and Calendar. You MUST fulfill all your requirements by the deadlines listed in the Calendar.
All papers and all assignments must be submitted on or before the due date. Late paper on Night will be penalized five points for each day late.
The only possible exception will be if you can prove that you had a serious medical emergency. Changes in work schedules, holidays, and the like, are not acceptable excuses. You should in such cases submit your work early. If you expect your schedule to be irregular due to business trips or other commitments, you should be prepared to complete and submit work in advance.
Computer problems are not an acceptable excuse for late work. If you have a computer problem, go to a library.
Your success in this course requires you to develop a time management plan and apply good self-discipline to follow it. Pima Community Colleges must have 600 points out of 1000 (or 60% or the total points) to pass the course. Less than 600 points (or below 60 % of the total points) is F.
Check the Class Schedule, the Calendar, and the document "Important Dates" in "Instructor's Announcements" in "Discussions.".
PRINT the “Calendar” (in the left column). The “Calendar” reflects your weekly assignments, and the deadlines of your requirements at a glance. There may be changes in the dates of assignments, and dates of different deadlines. Always check your e-mail, and the Instructor's Announcements when you enter the course web page. You are responsible for keeping track of all changes. If you are confused by the due dates or the assignments, post a message to the Discussion Board or e-mail your instructor.
2. All work done for this class must be your own. While you may discuss assignments with other class members, the final written project must clearly be your own. You may use work from books and other materials if it is properly cited. Copying from a book without proper reference or from a person under any circumstances will result in an F for the assignment, and at the instructor's discretion, possibly an F for the course.
3. Students are expected to abide by the Student Code of
Conduct and the Scholastic Code of Conduct found in the Pima Community
College Student Handbook. Copies are available at PCC campus libraries
and at http://www.pima.edu/~coadmissions/studresp.htm.
Plagiarism (attempting to pass off the work of another as one's
own) is not acceptable, will result in a grade of 0 for that
assignment, and will be turned over to the appropriate college source
for disciplinary action. In addition, cheating on exams will also
result in the same fate. See more details at:
Privacy: Your work may be used anonymously as an example in other classes, workshops, or scholarly publications, for educational or scholarly research purposes only. If you do not wish your writing to be used in this manner, let me know via class mail by the second week of the semester.
Pima Community College is an equal opportunity, affirmative action employer and educational institution committed to excellence through diversity. Reasonable accommodations including material format, will be made for individuals with disabilities when a minimum of five working days advance notice is given. Contact the appropriate campus Disabled Student Resources Office.
Online Etiquette: http://www.albion.com/netiquette/corerules.html
The first week begins the first day of the term and ends six days later. Assignments scheduled for completion during a class week should be completed by the deadlines listed in the Calendar. Writing assignments and formal papers should be completed and successfully submitted, so that they are in the instructor's hands on the due date. If you have problems transmitting your assignment to your instructor, contact your instructor by e-mail immediately to solve your problem.
You MUST keep a copy, in a disk, of all your work.
E-mails - All classroom e-mails are sent and received using Mailbox. Do NOT use your personal or office email account.
|900 - 1000||A = Excellent|
|800 - 899||B = Above Average|
|700- 799||C = Average|
|600- 699||D = Below Average|
|Less than 600||F = Failing|
NO extra credit work will be made available.
I will assign a grade of incomplete in very exceptional circumstances, and after you have specifically requested the grade. There will be a written contract before the end of the semester, specifying in details, the tasks and deadlines you must fulfill in order to complete the course. You will receive a copy of the standard "I" form filed with the grade. This form states specifically your obligations. The "I" grade automatically reverts to an "F" after one year.
For general information about Pima Community College: 206-4500
At the beginning of every week, check the calendar, and click on the relevant module of the week to fulfill your requirements accordingly. Start by reading the Summary of the Module (in "Discussion"), Shaked’s lectures, then Bauer’s book. I strongly recommend that you go to Pima Community College Downtown Library to see the video Genocide (Simon Wiesenthal Center).
Every time you log in to WebC, always check your e-mail, the Homepage and "Instructor's Announcements" in the Discussions area for the latest course news -- such as assignment or deadline changes. Students are responsible for keeping up as some changes may be made.
Typical weekly assignment will include the following:
I. Context and Preconditions, Up to 1933
||Dynamics of Prejudice
Context. Who are the Jews"
Antisemitism up to 1914
Why the Jews?
|Shaked's Online Lectures (OL)
: 1- 3
Bauer, 13-50; 57-60
Shaked's Study Guides (SG): 1-3, Part I-III
Contract. Introductions. Discussion Questions (DQ); comment.
Response Paper (RP)
||German Racial Nationalism
Why Germany? Up to 1932
WWI; Weimar Republic
Rise of Hitler & Nazism.
|OL: 4-6. Bauer 50-56;
SG: 4-6, Part I and II
DQ; comment. RP
II. Jan 1933-May 1945: The 3rd Reich and the Holocaust Era
||Legal Dictatorship under the 3rd Reich,
War Against the Jews & Other
|OL 7-8d. Bauer 101-146; 227-228
DQ; comment. RP
||World War II, Lebensraum,
"New Order," 1939-41
Poland - The Turn to Genocide
War against the Jews: Ghettoization, Dehumanization, and Deportation.
|OL: 9-10b. Bauer 147-208; 248-53; 256-257;
259-260; 262-264; 383-385
SG 9-10b, Part I and II
||Death by Design, 1941-45
Shoah - War against the Jews: From Isolation to "Final Solution"
Death Camps. War against Other Undesirables & Enemies of the State
Perpetrators: Ordinary Men or Willing Executioners?
|OL: 11a -11c. Bauer 209-47; 253-62; 264-265
SG 11a-11c, Part I and II
DQ; comment. RP
||Responses to the Holocaust:
Bystanders: "The Sounds of Silence"
|OL: 12, 13. Bauer 266-331
SG 12, 13, Part I and II
DQ; comment. RP
||End of the Third Reich - The Last Years,
1943-45: Death Marches, End of Nazi Germany, Liberation
||OL: 14. Bauer 332-369
DQ; comment. RP
Video Quiz on Schindler's List
III. Aftermath and Revival, 1945-
||Aftermath and Revival
|OL: 15. Bauer 370-382
Test # 4 (OL 12-15)
Important Note: See Study Guides for readings in Bauer, A History of the Holocaust
Lectures reside at http://www.u.arizona.edu/~shaked and are linked from this course.
- I would recommend it to everyone. I feel I got a lot out of this class and am very happy that I was able to take it.
- I have learned so much I didn't know. I read and watched amazing programs that I never would have if I wasn't in this class.
- There was a lot of information to digest ... Still, it was a good class to take and I did learn a lot.
- What I’ve learned from this class is about humanity. … a different culture could be targeted. This is a great class.
- I enjoyed this class very much!
- I enjoyed this course. It is well run and easy to understand.
- I enjoyed this class immensely. It was well organized
- Enjoyed this class a great deal. I learned a great deal. The readings were long but necessary and the study guides were very helpful in preparing for the tests.
- This was an amazing class. Despite having learned about the Holocaust in previous environments, I learned much, much more this time around. You did a wonderful job with this class and I couldn't ask for anything better. Thank you so much for a wonderful semester!
- This is the most interesting course I have ever taken. . I loved it.
- … this course gave me an incredible insight into this historical period. … I also think that the instructor is incredible. When I had questions, her lectures always gave me the answers and where to find further information.
- I think this course was great, and I really felt an emotional connection to this subject. For being an online class, that is amazing. Also, I absolutely loved the text/notes that were compiled by Shaked because it was so comprehensive and encompassed so many things I did not know about or learn in past studies of the Holocaust, so thank you!
- I enjoyed the assignments and they definitely reflected our knowledge of the material.- I found that Schinder's List was an excellent movie. I had never seen it before.
Many of the events and ideas that we covered in the class all came together by watching this movie.
- I loved watching Schinder's List. Much of what we studied came together in the film
- I honestly cannot think of suggestions. I found the course extremely informative, and I really enjoyed it!
- I liked this class better than most I ever took at the U of A. It was well organized and what you expected of us was extremely clear. ... It was a great class!
Always use citations in the text to document any ideas taken from a
American Psychological Association (APA) format is used for most social and natural sciences. If you do not have a text copy of the APA’s Style Guide, 5th ed. please refer to the following websites for assistance with APA formatting:
Using American Psychological Association (APA) Format (Updated to 5th Edition)
APA Style Guide - 5th Edition
AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (APA) FORMAT (5th Edition)
APA Style Essentials
You may also avail yourself of http://www.easybib.com/, which will assist you in creating an APA style bibliography.
Bauman, M. (2001) Ideas and Details. Fort Worth: Harcourt.
Mapping the Holocaust.
Holocaust Learning Center
Holocaust Memorial Museum
The Holocaust (and glossary).
The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority, Holocaust Resource Center
Courage to Remember
A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust.
The Holocaust - A guide for Teachers.
David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies
Industrial Killing Auschwitz Birkenau
Industrial Killing Auschwitz Birkenau (2)
The War Years
World War II
World War II (2)
The Voice/Vision Holocaust Survivor Oral History Archive
“Understanding the Holocaust leads to understanding hate. Studying the rise of the Nazis and their annihilation of the Jews and other undesirables is an exploration into how ordinary people can, through mass persuasion and social structural constraints, be led into committing genocide.” Milton Meltzer observes, "that it happened once, unbelievable as it seems, means that it could happen again. Hitler made it a possibility for anyone. Neither the Jews nor any other group on earth can feel safe from that crime in the future."
"Every Jew that we can lay our hands on is to be destroyed now" -- Himmler
“Can we educate? You see, the Holocaust, that extreme, and best-researched case of genocide, turns out to be also the arena for the most amazing examples of the other side of human capability, namely that of self-sacrifice for others, of our ability to stand up for moral values that we and our listeners will admire. ... rescuers during the Holocaust ... teach us of different behavior, though the road to that end is extremely difficult.” (www.Holocaust-trc.org/bauer_keynote.htm ( The Amsterdam Conference on Remembrance, May 2001).