Pima Community College - Community Campus
HIS 274 Syllabus 


Welcome to HIS 274 online! My name is Edith Shaked. I will be your instructor. This is an online version of a successful classroom course I taught at Downtown Campus, Community Campus, and at Davis Monthan Base. I developed this course in such a way to facilitate and ensure student’s success. All my students have successfully passed the class, because they diligently fulfilled all their requirements.

Course Information

Instructor: Edith Shaked
Format: 8 week - Web CT Delivery
Web Site:
Credit Hours: 3
Transferability: AGEC

Required Readings/Texts:


A History of the Holocaust

Yehuda Bauer, RVISED Edition 2002. ISBN 0-531-15576-5 [textbook]


Elie Wiesel, New York: Bantham, 1982 

The books are paperback. They are available at Pima Community College Bookstore. The PCC bookstore can be accessed and books ordered via internet at
Books can also be purchased at the PCC Downtown Campus bookstore.

Online Lectures (OL), Study Guides (SG). Edith Shaked, 2003.
Using the SG on your own will enhance your understanding of the material and facilitate your success in this class. The “Focus/Review/Discussion Questions” , are designed to help guide your reading and understanding of the material, and to help you focus on the important topics; knowing the answers will help you in writing ALL your assignments and pass the tests. I suggest that students do the multiple-choice questions and the “Define/Identify” parts of each SG, as the tests will be based on them.

You may want to PRINT Shaked’s lectures and Study Guides, because they complement the book of Bauer, and they include information from many sources. They will help you for your work.

Helpful Material

Target Audience

This class fulfills ‘G’ (Global Awareness), is required for the Diversity Certificate, and is equivalent to HIS-374 at the University of Arizona. Check with your counselor at Pima Community College or at your university for more details. No prerequisite.

The course assumes no prior knowledge of either Jewish history and Judaism, the history of antisemitism, or the Holocaust. Rather, it sets out to provide an introductory historical understanding of these issues. The course is also intended to assist teachers in preparing their own courses on the Holocaust.

HIS 274 The Holocaust

The Holocaust in Western Civilization - Hatred of the Other. Prejudice Reduction
Shoah and The Nazi Assault on Humanity - A Warning, “They let us do it”

May their voice never be silenced
May your voice be heard
Remember and speak up for all-inclusiveness and equal dignity and equality

"I have learned that whenever a community is threatened, all are affected. Whenever a single human being is humiliated, the human image is cheapened. Whenever a person suffers for whatever the reason and no one is there to offer a hand, a smile, a gift, a memory, a smile again, something is wrong with society at large." (Elie Wiesel)

Course Description

Overview of course content & objectives
Information about instructional method
Why students should take the course - purpose or value of the course
How students will change as a result of the course, knowledge skills they will acquire

Causes and legacies of the Nazi assault on humanity. Includes the history of hate in Europe, historical antecedents and preconditions, Third Reich and creation of the racial state, form isolation to the "Final Solution", aftermath (1945-) and the Holocaust and relevant events.

The Holocaust refers to the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored massacre of European Jewry, and the attempt to annihilate the Jewish people, from France in the west to the Soviet Union in the east, and from Latvia in the north to French North Africa and Italian Libya in the south, during the Holocaust era, 1933-45. The Hebrew term Sho’ah is also used to describe the murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. Although Jews were the primary victims, millions of others labeled "undesirable," "enemies of the state," or "subhuman" were also murdered. Some groups were targeted because of their perceived "racial inferiority": Roma (Gypsies), the physically and mentally challenged, the "Black," African-American and Jewish American soldiers, and some of the Slavic people (Poles, Russians, and others). Other groups were persecuted and murdered on political and behavioral grounds, among them political dissidents (Communists, Socialists, and trade unionists), religious dissidents (such as Jehovah's Witnesses), and homosexuals (Sources: Encyclopedia of the Holocaust; web sites of the museums of Yad Vashem, the Museum of Tolerance -Wiesenthal Center, and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum).

The Holocaust stands as a landmark of man’s faculty for evil. It is about the extreme outcome of institutionalized prejudice and policies of exclusion, and violations of human rights of the "other." The Holocaust is considered a watershed event in modern history, a defining moment in European and world history, in its specificity, a symbol for genocide, mass murder, racism, hatred of foreigners, and hatred of the other.

This course will examine and discuss the historical preconditions, ideologies, causes, events and processes which culminated in the Holocaust - How a society could get to this point. We will attempt to document and analyze this event and what it represents in its proper historical context, and from a variety of disciplines, exploring the inter-relationships between the perpetrators, the victims, and the bystanders. In the view of many commentators, it was the interaction of these categories of people that made possible this unthinkable episode in human history. It is hoped that by the end of the course, you should have a better sense of the context in which the Holocaust must be understood, and have some answers to the question "How did it happen?"

This case study of genocide provides examples of the use of law, medicine, bureaucracy, and modern technology without moral or ethical grounds. It is about ordinary people doing extraordinary evil. "The Holocaust has been seen as an event that fundamentally challenges the foundations upon which human civilization rests. It has generated a credibility crisis of major proportions in our most basic assumptions about the nature of humankind and of society, of the modern stated, and of our responsibilities as citizens of the world to speak up and act to stop the unjust suffering of innocent people everywhere." (Yad Vashem - why teach the Holocaust)

The meaning and impact of the Holocaust on our society and our world will be explored through history, with emphasis on equal dignity, ethics, tolerance, equity in diversity and pluralism, democratic inclusion and human understanding. Through movies, readings, documents, electronic discussions, and writings, we will discuss the behavior and perspectives of perpetrators, survivors, bystanders, and ourselves as students, while seeking to understand the nature of this twentieth century event and its significance. Through study of works by survivor-memoirists, we will encounter the lived experience of individuals who survived the concentration camp world.

"Understanding the Holocaust leads to understanding hate. Studying the rise of the Nazis and their extermination of the Jews and other undesirables is an exploration into how ordinary people can, through mass persuasion and social structural constraints, be led into committing genocide." Milton Meltzer observes, ‘that it happened once, unbelievable, as it seems, means that it could happen again. Hitler made it a possibility for anyone. Neither the Jews nor any other group on earth can feel safe from that crime in the future."

The Holocaust, ultimately, teaches valuable lessons about human nature and society. The educational and moral lessons of the Holocaust have been summed up by Professor Yehuda Bauer, the Academic Advisor to the task Force for International Cooperation on Holocaust Education, in the following memorable three-point prohibition:

"Do not be a perpetrator
Do not be a victim
Do not be a bystander." Be vigilant and speak-up.

Our understanding of genocide leads us to an appreciation of the necessity for equal dignity and equal rights for everyone, for maintaining tolerance of people diversity, and a refusal to let hate-based policies of small groups become the policy of a nation. It is crucial that, through the examination of the extreme results of prejudice, intolerance of "the others," ethnocentrism, we begin to understand our individual and corporate responsibilities for moral and ethical acceptance of diverse peoples and perspectives.


Upon completion of the course, the student will be able to do the following:
1. Describe and explain the history of hate in Europe, modern antisemitism in the 19th century, the origins of racism, and the social, political, economic and cultural developments that helped create a climate in which the Holocaust could occur (Describe and explain how the Holocaust is the extreme outcome of institutionalized prejudice, antisemitism and racism).

2. Describe and explain the rise of the Nazi Party, Hitler's synthesis, the creation of the racial state-the Third Reich, and the responses to its actions, during the prewar period (1933-1939).

3. Describe and explain the processes which culminated in genocide-from isolation to the "Final Solution," and the reactions to the Holocaust, exploring the inter-relationships between the perpetrators, the victims, the rescuers, the bystanders and the resisters (1939-45).

4. Describe and explain the aftermath (1945- ) i.e. the death marches, the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials, the United Nation's Genocide Convention, and the return or resettlement of the Jews.

5. Describe and explain the implications of the Holocaust for relevant events i.e. the contemporary episodes of "ethnic cleansing" such as Bosnia-Herzegovina, American Indian Genocide, etc., racism, value of diversity, and the legacy for the future.

The information below gives an overview of how coursework will be scheduled. This information may change as the semester progresses. For current details about assignments and deadlines, please see the "Calendar" inside the course website. Work starts in the course on the very first class day of the semester.

Course Organization

The content of this course is organized into 8 modules, that are thematically and chronologically related. Each module includes instructional objectives that will help you write your response papers and pass your tests.

Requirements and Responsibilities

Every student MUST, by the deadlines listed in the "Calendar,"

Success on the Web

This is NOT a self-pace course. Students must fulfill ALL the requirements listed above by the DEADLINES listed in "Calendar." There is no "catching-up." In order to complete HIS 274 successfully, Pima Community College students must receive a passing grade, "D" (60%) by the end of the semester.

In the "Online Hub" section of the Community Campus web page there are links to "learning-online" guides, Power Point slide presentations, self-assessment quizzes, and an "Introduction to WebCT" course management system. Use these resources to help you navigate the technology of WebCT.

Assignments and Study Guides

Students must read the assigned materials (in Bauer and Shaked’s online lectures) by the week and module number it is listed under.  See "Course Schedule/Outline" at the end of this syllabus. See also “Calendar” and click on the relevant weekly module for more details. I suggest that you test yourself by going over the questions in the relevant Study Guides (SG); they will help you to succeed in this course.

To assist preparation for discussion, students will do the homework in the relevant study guides, completing ONLY Part I and II (the "Define" and the "multiple-choice" sections) of the assigned study guides. The "Focus/study Questions" in the study guides, are designed to help guide your reading and understanding of the material, and to help you focus on the important topics. Using the study guides on your own will enhance your understanding of the material and facilitate your success in this class.

If you have any disabling condition that I should be aware of in order to better meet your individual learning needs, please do not hesitate to inform me. In order to ensure full class participation, any student with a disabling condition is strongly encouraged to contact me at the beginning of the course.

Assessment/Evaluation and Grading

Your final grade will be based upon participating in the discussion board, submitting responses papers and a memoir reaction paper, and taking four tests and one short video quiz. Work starts in the course on the very first class day of the semester.
* Discussion Board Participation
Interaction with other students is an important part of any web-based class. Discussion questions (DQ) or board assignments are designed to promote interactivity among students and enhance the online learning process. Each student must participate in the bulletin board discussions for this class.

Every week, except the last one, students must post two complete answers, in an essay format, to two discussion questions titled "Discussion Questions" (DQ). PRINT the documents "Discussion Questions" and "Instructions for DQ" in "Instructor's Announcements" in link from 'Discussions.' In  addition, every week, except the last one, every student is required to post a one paragraph response to a classmate’s answer. ALL comments/answers for the week/module must be posted by the deadline in Calendar. The instructor will monitor the discussion and may or may not comment. No personal attacks or insults will be tolerated.

Discussion board assignments provide maximum flexibility because you do not have to be online at the same time as another person, and you can read what other students have written. Class discussion will greatly enhance your understanding of the material of the course. The Discussion Questions (DQ) also help you prepare for the test.  

Evaluation of your participation will be based upon you having read the required material, and expressing your thoughts. Students, who copy the answers from another student or other sources, will get an F.

* Response Papers (RP)

Every week, except the last one, students must submit one response paper (RP), as per deadline in Calendar. PRINT the documents "Questions for RP" and "Instructions for RP" in "Instructor's Announcements." 

The response papers (RP) are designed to provide you with an opportunity to integrate and respond to information presented in the readings. Each answer should represent a synthesis/analysis of the information. Each response paper is to be about two pages in length, depending on the question. Response papers will be worth 40 percent of your final grade.

* Memoir Paper/Analysis and Reaction Paper
You are required to read a memoir written by a Holocaust survivor. Your paper will deal with how the book helps you understand the nature and reality of the Holocaust. A detailed description of the assignment will be posted in "Instructor's Announcements." The paper is worth 10% of your final grade.
* One Brief Video Quiz
You are required to take a short quiz on Schindler’s List, showing that you have seen the movie. You can check-out the video at a public library.
* Four Online Quizzes/Tests
Objectives: They are designed to test for a basic understanding of the terms and historical events. Their primary goal is to facilitate timely engagement of the readings and confirm your comprehension of the key points.

The quizzes will consist of multiple-choice questions. The multiple-choice questions are drawn directly from Shaked's Study Guides (SG), so that students who take the time to do the multiple-choice questions in the SG, are rewarded with familiar test questions. Tests are time limited, so please don’t rely on finding information in the text as you take the test.

All quizzes must be taken on the dates scheduled, and as per Calendar. In case of an emergency, the instructor must be notified. No make-up tests will be given if you fail to notify and discuss your situation with the instructor. It is up to the instructor's discretion whether to offer or not offer an alternative to the test.

Any student caught cheating or collaborating will be given a zero on the exam and placed on academic probation. Students are expected to abide by the Student Code of Conduct and the Scholastic Code of Conduct,

Writing Requirements, Grading, and Late Work 
Microsoft Word: All papers must be submitted in Microsoft Word. It is your responsibility to find out whether the word processor is compatible with Microsoft Word. All of your work must express your own views, thoughts, ideas, and/or evaluation of the readings.

Grading is based on: 1) Have you read the material (weekly assignments, online essays, or memoir) carefully and thoroughly? 2) Have you thought about what you have read and presented a thoughtful reaction? 3) Have you communicated your ideas, views, and thoughts clearly and coherently? I expect clear and correct writing in your papers, weekly comments, and all other work. You  must correct spelling and basic writing errors. I expect you to check historical details and spell the names of the people we are studying correctly. There is no excuse for basic writing errors or for basic historical mistakes in work done at home.

If you copy or paraphrase from the required readings, another student’s work, or from other written or online sources, you will receive an F. Everything that you submit or post to the Discussion Board, must be your own work. it must be in your own words. Once again, if you copy or directly paraphrase any part or section of your paper, you will get an F.

Turn-Ins - Although Distance Learning provides you with a flexible schedule to meet your professional, personal and academic responsibilities, you are expected to follow the Class Schedule and Calendar. You MUST fulfill all your requirements by the deadlines listed in the Calendar.

All papers and all assignments must be submitted on or before the due date. Late paper on Night will be penalized five points for each day late.

The only possible exception will be if you can prove that you had a serious medical emergency. Changes in work schedules, holidays, and the like, are not acceptable excuses. You should in such cases submit your work early. If you expect your schedule to be irregular due to business trips or other commitments, you should be prepared to complete and submit work in advance.

Computer problems are not an acceptable excuse for late work. If you have a computer problem, go to a library.

Your success in this course requires you to develop a time management plan and apply good self-discipline to follow it. Pima Community Colleges must have  600 points out of 1000 (or 60% or the total points) to pass the course. Less than 600 points (or below 60 % of the total points) is F.

Due Dates

Check the Class Schedule, the Calendar, and the document "Important Dates"  in "Instructor's Announcements" in "Discussions.".

PRINT the “Calendar” (in the left column). The “Calendar” reflects your weekly assignments, and the deadlines of your requirements at a glance. There may be changes in the dates of assignments, and dates of different deadlines. Always check your e-mail, and the Instructor's Announcements when you enter the course web page. You are responsible for keeping track of all changes. If you are confused by the due dates or the assignments, post a message to the Discussion Board or e-mail your instructor.

Course Policies

Academic Integrity
1. Pima Community College policies are in effect. Violations of scholastic ethics are considered serious offenses by Pima Community College, the History Department and by your instructor. Students are responsible to read all relevant college documents, the Scholastic Code of Ethics, and the Student Code of Conduct, and to comply with them. Students may consult the PCC Student Handbook sections on student code of conduct, on scholastic ethics and on the grade appeal procedure. Copies are available at PCC campus libraries and at

2. All work done for this class must be your own. While you may discuss assignments with other class members, the final written project must clearly be your own. You may use work from books and other materials if it is properly cited. Copying from a book without proper reference or from a person under any circumstances will result in an F for the assignment, and at the instructor's discretion, possibly an F for the course.

3. Students are expected to abide by the Student Code of Conduct and the Scholastic Code of Conduct found in the Pima Community College Student Handbook. Copies are available at PCC campus libraries and at

Plagiarism (attempting to pass off the work of another as one's own) is not acceptable, will result in a grade of 0 for that assignment, and will be turned over to the appropriate college source for disciplinary action. In addition, cheating on exams will also result in the same fate. See more details at:

Privacy: Your work may be used anonymously as an example in other classes, workshops, or scholarly publications, for educational or scholarly research purposes only. If you do not wish your writing to be used in this manner, let me know via class mail by the second week of the semester.

ADA Compliance
Pima County Community College District strives to comply with the provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. Students with disabilities requiring special accommodations must notify the instructor of this need or directly contact the Disabled Student Resources Office on your campus at the beginning of the semester.

Pima Community College is an equal opportunity, affirmative action employer and educational institution committed to excellence through diversity. Reasonable accommodations including material format, will be made for individuals with disabilities when a minimum of five working days advance notice is given. Contact the appropriate campus Disabled Student Resources Office.

Online Participation
This course is offered online, over the Internet and the World Wide Web, using Web CT Delivery, which allows students to participate at any time, from any location. Because of this flexibility, it is important to plan your time carefully. Students are expected to participate in discussions, post their essay answers and fulfill ALL their requirements, as per calendar. You should expect to spend the same amount of time you spend in the physical classroom. You will be sending and receiving E-mail, performing online research, and with courtesy, interacting socially and professionally with classmates.

Online Etiquette:

The first week begins the first day of the term and ends six days later. Assignments scheduled for completion during a class week should be completed by the deadlines listed in the Calendar.  Writing assignments and formal papers should be completed and successfully submitted, so that they are in the instructor's hands on the due date. If you have problems transmitting your assignment to your instructor, contact your instructor by e-mail immediately to solve your problem.

You MUST keep a copy, in a disk, of all your work.

Course Feedback
Feedback to students in this course is important. Every attempt will be made to score graded work as quickly as possible. In most cases, quizzes, papers and other assignments will be returned within one week. If you have questions about your performance in the course, please email me through WebCT and I will bring you up to date.

E-mails - All classroom e-mails are sent and received using Mailbox. Do NOT use your personal or office email account.

Instructor Withdrawals
Students may withdraw from class at any time up until the withdrawal date without instructor permission and without incurring any grade penalty. After the withdrawal date, neither student nor instructor may withdraw a student. Students not active after the withdrawal date will receive and "F" grade at the end of the semester. Please, be sure to withdraw yourself by the withdrawal date if you do not expect to complete the class. Look in the WebCT course calendar to see drop/refund and withdrawal dates for this class. Students MUST read the current Pima Community College Schedule of classes/catalog.

Grading Policies

900 - 1000 A = Excellent
800 - 899 B = Above Average
700- 799 C = Average
600- 699 D = Below Average
Less than 600 F = Failing
Your Grade/Percent of Grade
Posting responses 
305 points
Memoir Paper
100 points
Video Quiz
100 points
95 points
Response Papers
                 400 points
1000 points

NO extra credit work will be made available.

Incomplete (I) grade
A grade of incomplete may not be given in this class. If you cannot complete the work due to circumstances beyond your control, you are advised to withdraw.

I will assign a grade of incomplete in very exceptional circumstances, and after you have specifically requested the grade. There will be a written contract before the end of the semester, specifying in details, the tasks and deadlines you must fulfill in order to complete the course. You will receive a copy of the standard "I" form filed with the grade. This form states specifically your obligations. The "I" grade automatically reverts to an "F" after one year.

Special Withdrawal (Y) grade
The "Y" grade is an administrative withdrawal given at the instructor’s option when no other grade is deemed appropriate. When assigning a Y grade, an instructor must file a form stating the specific rationale for awarding this grade. "Y" grades are discouraged since they often affect students negatively. I will not award a Y grade without a compelling reason. No "Y" will be given on the basis of poor class performance.
Remaining in Course
It is understood that remaining in this course (not dropping or withdrawing from this course) constitutes an agreement to abide by the terms outlined in this syllabus and an acceptance of the requirements outlined in this document.
Changes to the Syllabus
This syllabus is subject to change at the instructor's discretion, as deemed appropriate and necessary. See changes in "Instructors's Announcements."
Acknowledgement of Receipt of Syllabus
Go now to the Tests area and click on the Course Contract. By answering "Yes" to the question, you will be acknowledging that you have read the syllabus, understand what it says, and what is required to successfully complete this course.

For general information about Pima Community College: 206-4500

Course Schedule/Outline

You MUST read the “Read Me First!” message, PRINT the “Syllabus” and the “Calendar” (in the left column), and do the “Contract” as per due date. The “Calendar” reflects your weekly assignments, and your dated requirements at a glance.

At the beginning of every week, check the calendar, and click on the relevant module of the week to fulfill your requirements accordingly. Start by reading the Summary of the Module (in "Discussion"), Shaked’s lectures, then Bauer’s book. I strongly recommend that you go to Pima Community College Downtown Library to see the video Genocide (Simon Wiesenthal Center).

Every time you log in to WebC, always check your e-mail, the Homepage and "Instructor's Announcements" in the Discussions area for the latest course news -- such as assignment or deadline changes. Students are responsible for keeping up as some changes may be made.

Typical weekly assignment will include the following:


The Holocaust in Western Civilization - Assault on Humanity & Hatred of the Other
From Prejudice & Ideology to Murder, Genocide & Shoah

Weekly Assignments

I. Context and Preconditions, Up to 1933
Ideological Roots: Antisemitism, Racism, Nazism 
Dynamics of Prejudice

Context. Who are the Jews"
Antisemitism up to 1914
Why the Jews? 
Shaked's Online Lectures (OL) : 1- 3
Bauer, 13-50; 57-60

Shaked's Study Guides (SG): 1-3, Part I-III

Contract. Introductions. Discussion Questions (DQ); comment. Response Paper (RP)

German Racial Nationalism
Why Germany? Up to 1932
WWI; Weimar Republic
Rise of Hitler & Nazism.
OL: 4-6. Bauer 50-56; 61-100 
SG: 4-6, Part I and II

DQ; comment. RP

II. Jan 1933-May 1945: The 3rd Reich and the Holocaust Era
The Murderous Ideological Wars 
      A. 1933-39: Germany under National Socialism, the Racial State
Legal Dictatorship under the 3rd Reich, 1933-39

War Against the Jews & Other "Undesirables;"              
Resisters: Jehovah’s Witnesses
German Foreign Policy. 

OL 7-8d. Bauer 101-146; 227-228
SG: 7-8d

DQ; comment. RP 

Test #1 (OL 1-6)

B. WW II, 1939-45: Quest for Lebensraum, New Order & Holocaust 
1. 1939-41: Exporting Nazism, Ghetto
World War II, Lebensraum, "New Order," 1939-41
Poland - The Turn to Genocide
War against the Jews: Ghettoization, Dehumanization, and Deportation.
OL: 9-10b. Bauer 147-208; 248-53; 256-257; 259-260; 262-264; 383-385

SG 9-10b, Part I and II
DQ; comment. RP
Test # 2 (OL 7-8d)

                   2. 1941-45: Death by Design, Shoah, Death Camps
Death by Design, 1941-45

Shoah - War against the Jews: From Isolation to "Final Solution" 

Death Camps. War against Other Undesirables & Enemies of the State

Perpetrators: Ordinary Men or Willing Executioners? 

OL: 11a -11c. Bauer 209-47; 253-62; 264-265

SG 11a-11c, Part I and II

DQ; comment. RP

Memoir paper

Responses to the Holocaust:
Bystanders: "The Sounds of Silence"
OL: 12, 13. Bauer 266-331
SG 12, 13, Part I and II

DQ; comment. RP
Test # 3 (OL 9-11c)

End of the Third Reich - The Last Years, 1943-45: Death Marches, End of Nazi Germany, Liberation
OL: 14. Bauer 332-369
SG 14
DQ; comment. RP
Video Quiz on Schindler's List
III. Aftermath and Revival, 1945-
Aftermath and Revival
Nuremberg Trials
OL: 15. Bauer 370-382
SG 15

Test # 4 (OL 12-15)
Course critique/evaluation 


Important Note: See Study Guides for readings in Bauer, A History of the Holocaust

Lectures reside at and are linked from this course.

Some comments from students' critique

This was the first on-line course I have taken and I would definitely recommend it to other students. The course was extremely informative and interesting. Plus, the instructor went above and beyond to make sure that I succeeded in this class, which I really appreciate!

- I would recommend it to everyone.  I feel I got a lot out of this class and am very happy that I was able to take it.
- I have learned so much I didn't know. I read and watched amazing programs that I never would have if I wasn't in this class.
- There was a lot of information to digest ... Still, it was a good class to take and I did learn a lot.
- What I’ve learned from this class is about humanity. … a different culture could be targeted. This is a great class.
- I enjoyed this class very much!
- I enjoyed this course. It is well run and easy to understand.

- I enjoyed this class immensely.  It was well organized  

 - Enjoyed this class a great deal. I learned a great deal.  The readings were long but necessary and the study guides were very helpful in preparing for the tests.
- This was an amazing class.  Despite having learned about the Holocaust in previous environments, I learned much, much more this time around. You did a wonderful job with this class and I couldn't ask for anything better. Thank you so much for a wonderful semester!
- This is the most interesting course I have ever taken. . I loved it.

- … this course gave me an incredible insight into this historical period. … I also think that the instructor is incredible. When I had questions, her lectures always gave me the answers and where to find further information.
- I think this course was great, and I really felt an emotional connection to this subject.  For being an online class, that is amazing.  Also, I absolutely loved the text/notes that were compiled by Shaked because it was so comprehensive and encompassed so many things I did not know about or learn in past studies of the Holocaust, so thank you!
- I enjoyed the assignments and they definitely reflected our knowledge of the material.

- I found that Schinder's List was an excellent movie. I had never seen it before. 
Many of the events and ideas that we covered in the class all came together by watching this movie.
- I loved watching Schinder's List.  Much of what we studied came together in the film

- I honestly cannot think of suggestions. I found the course extremely informative, and I really enjoyed it!
- I liked this class better than most I ever took at the U of A.  It was well organized and what you expected of us was extremely clear. ... It was a great class!

Professor Biography

Edith Shaked has been teaching at the college and university level for more than 30 years (with almost 15 years at Pima Community College). She initiated the Holocaust course in response to student’s interest. In 1998, she was selected to participate at “The Summer Institute on The Holocaust and Jewish Civilization,” at Northwestern University (a 2-week program to train university and college professors to teach about the Holocaust). Her degree in history and her Master in Teaching have proven to be a good combination. Edith Shaked has always been committed to inspire quality learning experiences, and to empower students with differing learning styles and needs to succeed. She enjoys teaching and interacting with students, who have consistently evaluated her as an excellent teacher. Some biographical notes: Edith Shaked’s long-standing personal and academic interest in the Holocaust stems from family history. Mrs. Shaked has been an active participant in the Holocaust Education scene in Tucson.

APS Citations and Reference List

APA Citations

Always use citations in the text to document any ideas taken from a source.
American Psychological Association (APA) format is used for most social and natural sciences. If you do not have a text copy of the APA’s Style Guide, 5th ed. please refer to the following websites for assistance with APA formatting:

Using American Psychological Association (APA) Format (Updated to 5th Edition)

APA Style Guide - 5th Edition


APA Style Essentials

You may also avail yourself of, which will assist you in creating an APA style bibliography.

Reference List

Bauman, M. (2001) Ideas and Details. Fort Worth: Harcourt.

Mapping the Holocaust.
Holocaust Learning Center
Holocaust Memorial Museum
The Holocaust (and glossary).
The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority, Holocaust Resource Center
Courage to Remember
A Teacher’s Guide to the Holocaust.
The Holocaust - A guide for Teachers.
David S. Wyman Institute for Holocaust Studies
Industrial Killing Auschwitz Birkenau
Industrial Killing Auschwitz Birkenau (2)

Other Links:

General Resources
The War Years
World War II
World War II (2)

The Voice/Vision Holocaust Survivor Oral History Archive

Resources Pages.


The road to Auschwitz was built by hate, but paved with indifference

“Understanding the Holocaust leads to understanding hate. Studying the rise of the Nazis and their annihilation of the Jews and other undesirables is an exploration into how ordinary people can, through mass persuasion and social structural constraints, be led into committing genocide.” Milton Meltzer observes, "that it happened once, unbelievable as it seems, means that it could happen again. Hitler made it a possibility for anyone. Neither the Jews nor any other group on earth can feel safe from that crime in the future."

"Every Jew that we can lay our hands on is to be destroyed now" -- Himmler

“Can we educate? You see, the Holocaust, that extreme, and best-researched case of genocide, turns out to be also the arena for the most amazing examples of the other side of human capability, namely that of self-sacrifice for others, of our ability to stand up for moral values that we and our listeners will admire. ... rescuers during the Holocaust ... teach us of different behavior, though the road to that end is extremely difficult.” ( ( The Amsterdam Conference on Remembrance, May 2001).


I am thankful for all the Holocaust websites., Professor Alexander Alvarez, Stephen Blumm, and Lewis Fried, and the wonderful staff at Pima Community Campus.


Students must PRINT this syllabus.