Part II. The 3rd Reich & the Holocaust Era, Jan 1933-May 1945
Murderous Racism and Antisemitism - Bureaucracy of Evil

B. World War II, Sept. 1939-May, 1945: “New Order” & Holocaust
1. 1939-41: Exporting Nazism - Lebensraum, Racism, Antisemitism & Dehumanization
2. 1941-45: Death by Design & Shoah

TWELVE RESPONSES: RESISTERS

* Bauer 266-306

Objective: To examine & discuss the nature of resistance both active and passive as it occurred in Germany, the ghettos, concentration/extermination camps, and throughout Nazi occupied/controlled areas. To question what enables individuals both individually (for example, individual rescuers) and collectively (for example, partisans) to resist evil/genocide.

Outcomes. Responses. At the conclusion of this module students will be able to describe and explain the responses to the Holocaust, exploring the inter-relationships between the perpetrators, the victims, the rescuers, the bystanders and and the resisters.
- Students will be able to discuss altruistic behavior and the various forms of resistance that occurred during the Holocaust.

Instructional Objectives - Students will learn that/will be able:

1. There are various responses to dealing with a threat from an authority. Resistance can take many forms, both passive and active; Moral and social considerations involved in deciding to opt for resistance. Some Germans did resist Nazism.

2. Jews did resist the Holocaust.
3. To discuss the nature of resistance both active and passive as it occurred in Germany, the

Focus Questions

1. What were the various types of resistance in the context of opposition to the Third Reich?
2. What enabled some individuals, groups, or countries to actively become involved in resistance while others remained passive bystanders and others sympathizers or collaborators?

Study Questions/ESSAYS


1. Describe and explain attempts to resist the Nazis. What did people in Germany and elsewhere know about the “Final Solution”?
Define and discuss resistance and distinguish types of resistance.
Identify the risks of helping or even being associated with someone considered "undesirable" by Nazi policy.

2. Describe and explain attempts to resist the Nazis in Germany.
3. What role did Nazi resistance fighters play in aiding victims of persecution?

4. Discuss Jewish resistance, both physical and spiritual, to the Nazis. What kinds of resistance, besides armed rebellion, were possible in the ghettos and death camps?
Why did many Jews refuse to believe that the Nazis planned to murder all the Jews of Europe? (Aba Kovner, Bauer p. 271)
When were the Jews aware that the Final Solution was being implemented? How did they react? Under what circumstances was physical resistance utilized by Jewish groups against the Nazis?
Discuss several reasons why Jewish armed resistance in the ghettos and concentration camps was difficult and, in some cases, impossible. What were the obstacles to resistance? Identify the risks of helping or even being associated with someone considered "undesirable" by Nazi policy. Who helped? Identify examples of individual and group resistance to Nazi repression and killing.
How did the Judenrat react to Jewish resistance? Discuss the role of the Judenrat in carrying out the orders of the Nazis. Attitude of Judenraete to resistance.

5. Describe the Warsaw ghetto uprising. When? What gave Jews the impetus to fight in the Warsaw ghetto? How did it end?

6. Describe the revolt in the death camps/Sobibor/Auschwitz

7. Describe and explain Jewish resistance in Western Europe. What did the partisans do?)

8. What was the situation of the Jews of Tunisia between Nov. 1942 and May 1943? Describe Jewish resistance in Algeria and Tunisia.

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Responses Who knew what? When? Where? How?

Responses of Axis and Allied governments, and responses of the Jews.

Conceptual framework

“Discussion of the role of such witnesses and bystanders as the Allies, the churches, world Jewry, and individual Europeans. This unit -Responses- explore the issue of contemporary knowledge of the Holocaust and the factors constraining activity on behalf of the victims. ... also deals with the range of responses of the Jewish victims and pays particular attention to definitions of resistance as well as to study of particular instances of resistance.”

Issues: The reactions of the Germans, the European nations under occupation, the Allies ... to the persecution of the Jews and their extermination. In this context the responses of the Churches are analyzed.

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Chapter Content

Resistance and Rescue
http://motlc.wiesenthal.org/pages/rr.html


‘The Germans carried out their systematic murderous activities with the active help of local collaborators in many countries and the acquiescence or indifference of million bystanders. However, there were instances of organized resistance;’1
*The systematic murders by the Nazis and their local collaborators in much of Europe was silently accepted by millions of bystanders. As in any case however, there are exceptions to the rule - organized resistance would be found in some areas.


Both in Nazi occupied Europe and outside of it, individual people, local, national and international organizations, and even countries, tried to be of some assistance in rescuing Jews. In many cases these were mainly lip-service attempts. The most effective resistance was undertaken by partisans and underground fighters, who were mostly ill-equipped but had the motivation to fight.


RESCUE ACTIVISTS
http://motlc.wiesenthal.org/pages/t066/t06693.html

There was a wide range of political and religious beliefs among resistance and rescue activists. Their various goals included aiding refugees, devising and implementing escape plans, spreading information about the death camps, fighting in partisan groups, sabotaging enemy targets and organizing armed uprisings. Most were arrested by the Nazis and killed.

Resistance
http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/timeline/resist.htm
http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/

During the Holocaust era, 1933-45 resistance was any group action consciously taken in opposition to known or surmised laws, actions or intentions directed against the Jews by the Nazis or their supporters.

Accounts of Resistance
http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/arts/litResis.htm


‘One question frequently asked by students studying the Holocaust is "Why didn't the victims fight back?" The answer is, "Many did." Policies of oppression and genocide fueled resistance to the Nazis in the Third Reich and Nazi-occupied areas. Both Jews and non-Jews responded to Nazi oppression in various ways - resisted in ways big and small. During the Holocaust, Jews and other targeted groups had little access to military training or weapons and found themselves surrounded by professional soldiers armed with machine guns and armored tanks. Yet, even though the Nazis did succeed in killing millions of "undesirables" as part of Hitler's plan of bureaucratic genocide, those millions did not submit willingly. ‘Throughout the course of the Third Reich, there were different groups who opposed the Nazi regime and certain Nazi policies. They engaged in resistance at different times and with various methods, aims, and scope.’

“In studying about resistance to Nazism, it is important to recognize that resisters were a small minority compared with the overwhelming majority, who were bystanders, collaborators, or perpetrators. Then why consider the role the role of resisters? ‘We need the stories of the heroes and martyrs,’ explains Dr. Franklin H. Littell, ‘to give us eternal reminders that there were those who were surrounded by darkness far more intense than most of us can comprehend - and still affirmed the dignity and integrity and liberty of the human person.’ (from: Study Guide - Jehovah’s Witnesses stand firm against Nazi assault)
*Overt opposition was rarely wise because of the danger of reprisals from the Germans to the community and the constant threats of deportation and on-the-spot death.

German Resistance http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/

Germans Against Nazism : Nonconformity, Opposition and Resistance in the Third Reich

Between 1933 and 1945, a variety of groups in Germany, offered resistance to the Nazis, despite the high risk of being caught by police with the help of their many informers. Among the earliest opponents of Nazism in Germany were Jehovah’s Witnesses, Communists, Socialists, trade union leaders, and the White Rose. Although mainstream church hierarchies supported the Nazi regime, individual German theologians such as Dietrich Bonhoeffer opposed the regime. Bonhoeffer was executed in 1945. They clandestinely wrote, printed, and distributed anti-Nazi literature. Many of these rebels were arrested and imprisoned in concentration camps. Of the Germans who opposed Hitler's dictatorship, very few groups openly protested the Nazi genocide against Jews.

*Jehovah’s Witnesses - Spiritual resistance. For their religious belief, they stood firm
http://www.watchtower.org/library/g/1995/8/22/nazism_exposed.htm

Every European country, even Germany, had those who did not believe in the Nazi ideology and who were willing to die for their beliefs. Perhaps no other group stood so firmly in their beliefs as the Jehovah Witnesses. They were a model of spiritual resistance. Jehovah's Witnesses resisted Nazism through defiance. They refused to serve in the German army and, as concentration camp prisoners, organized illegal study groups. (see lect. 8c & addendum)

Those Witnesses who defied the ban on their activities were arrested and sent to prisons and concentration camps.

Marked with purple triangular badges, the Witnesses (JW) were a relatively small group of prisoners in the concentration camps, numbering several hundred per camp. If Jehovah's Witnesses within the camps signed documents renouncing their religious beliefs, they would be freed. Very few, even in the face of torture, signed the declarations. In all about 10,000 JW were imprisoned in concentration camps. Of these, approximately 2,500 to 5,000 died in Dachau, Belsen, Buchenwald, Auschwitz and other camps. More than 200 men were tried by the German War Court and executed for refusing military service.

Witnesses Among First in the Camps. http://www.Holocaust-trc.org/Jehovah.htm
Horrors of Camps Exposed
http://www.watchtower.org/library/g/1995/8/22/nazism_exposed.htm
Faithful to Death
http://www.watchtower.org/library/g/1995/8/22/unafraid_to_speak.htm

MADAME Geneviève de Gaulle, niece of former president of France Charles de Gaulle, was a member of the French Resistance. Upon her capture and her later imprisonment in the Ravensbrück concentration camp in 1944, she met Jehovah's Witnesses. After World War II, Madame de Gaulle lectured throughout Switzerland and spoke often of the Witnesses' integrity and courage. In an interview on May 20, 1994, she said of them:

"They were among the first deportees in the camp. Many had already died . . . We recognized them by their distinctive badge. . . . It was absolutely forbidden for them to talk about their beliefs or to have any religious books, and especially the Bible, which was considered the supreme book of sedition. . . . I know of [one of Jehovah's Witnesses], and there were others I was told, who was executed for having a few pages of Bible texts. . . .

"What I admired a lot in them was that they could have left at any time just by signing a renunciation of their faith. Ultimately, these women, who appeared to be so weak and worn out, were stronger than the SS, who had power and all the means at their disposal. [Jehovah's Witnesses] had their strength, and it was their willpower that no one could beat."

Conduct of Witnesses in the Camps
OUT OF love of neighbor-cell mate, barracks mate, camp mate-the Witnesses shared not only their spiritual food but also whatever physical food they had.

A Jew who survived the Buchenwald concentration camp explained: "There I met the Bibelforscher. They constantly testified to their beliefs. In fact, nothing would stop them speaking about their God. They were very helpful to other prisoners. When the pogrom sent a mass influx of Jews to the camp on November 10, 1938, the 'Jehovah's schwein', as the guards termed them, went round with a bread ration to the aged and famished Jews, going without food themselves for up to four days."
Similarly, a Jewish woman imprisoned in the Lichtenburg camp said of the Witnesses: "They were a brave people, who bore their fate patiently. Though the gentile prisoners were forbidden to talk to us, these women never observed this regulation. They prayed for us as if we belonged to their family, and begged us to hold out."

*"Protest of Youth" - The White Rose, June 1942

*The "White Rose" movement was founded in June 1942 by Hans Scholl, a 24-year-old medical student at the University of Munich, his 22-year-old sister Sophie, and 24-year-old Christoph Probst. Although the exact origin of the name "White Rose" is unknown, it clearly stands for purity and innocence in the face of evil. Hans, Sophie, and Christoph were outraged that educated Germans went along with Nazi policies. They distributed anti-Nazi leaflets and painted slogans like "Freedom!" and "Down With Hitler!" on walls of the university.
In February 1943, Hans and Sophie Scholl were caught distributing leaflets and arrested. Together with their friend Christoph, they were executed four days later. Hans's last words were "Long live freedom!"

"Protest of Youth" - The White Rose by ANTON GILL
http://www.english.upenn.edu:80/~afilreis/Holocaust/gill-white-rose.html

This site tells the story of The White Rose, a group of students who produced pamphlets resisting the Nazi regime, and paid for it with their lives.
‘Today, the main square outside the University of Munich is called Geschwister-Scholl-Platz. The name commemorates a small group of students who, operating independently, managed to create one of the few single protests of great significance outside the main body of the Resistance, in the town which had, throughout the mid-thirties, advertised itself on tourist brochures as 'The Birthplace of the Party'.

Hans and Sophie Scholl were the second and fourth of the five children of Robert Scholl, the liberal and independent mayor of the little town of Forchtenberg on the River Kocher to the east of Heilbronn. ... The arrival of National Socialism was the first impact of politics on the children's thought. Hans was fifteen, Sophie, twelve. ...

Hans had read the sermons of Bishop Galen. He had not given up his own ideas of making some kind of stand against the regime, and had become markedly politicized. From his writing it is clear that had he lived he would have chosen politics, not medicine, as his career.
He was already at the center of a group of young medical students--Willi Graf, Christoph Probst and Alexander Schmorell--who had decided to launch a leaflet campaign against the war, encouraging passive Resistance to the regime. They were joined by the popular philosophy lecturer Kurt Huber, who had already attracted the suspicion of the Nazis. He was considerably older than the others, but had no wish to lead the group. He guided his younger comrades' thoughts, and edited the last two of the six leaflets they produced. His lectures were always packed, because he managed to introduce veiled criticism of the regime into them.

The group had no wish to throw bombs, or to cause any injury to human life. They wanted to influence people's minds against Nazism and militarism. Already a sympathetic architect had lent them his studio in a rear courtyard for their clandestine activities, and the relatively well-off Sclhmorell had been able to buy a typewriter and a duplicating machine. They called their group the 'White Rose'. ...

The first four leaflets of the White Rose appeared in quick succession in June and July 1942. They were written jointly by Hans Scholl with Alexander Schmorell and Christoph Probst ... Tirelessly the group distributed the leaflets by the suitcase load throughout towns in southern Germany, either traveling with them (a very dangerous undertaking) and delivering them by hand at night, or using the mail. ...

Hans, Willi and Alexander were ordered to the Russian Front, but they returned to Munich in October. ... Hans had seen the maltreatment of Jews and Russian prisoners at first hand. ... The group returned from the Front more determined than ever to carry on the work of Resistance, and to make the White Rose into a permanent Resistance cell. ...

On Thursday 18 February 1943 ... Hans and Sophie decided to distribute it in the university personally. ... They hurried to the university at 10 a.m. ... The university's caretaker, Jakob Schmid, charged towards them as they raced back down the staircase, seized them each by the arm and bellowed, 'You're under arrest!' ... Hans and Sophie were not tortured, but they were interrogated intensively for four days in Gestapo Headquarters at Wittelsbach Palace in Munich. ... The trial was set for 22 February.

Roland Freisler, Hitler's hanging judge, flew down from Berlin specially to preside. This was an indication of the importance the Nazi leadership considered the White Rose to have. The war was lost; the Allies were already bombing Munich; but protesters still had to be smashed. ... The verdict was : death by the guillotine. ... By 6 p.m. Sophie and Hans were dead.

Hans and Sophie were buried in Perlach Cemetery in south Munich on 24 February. In the town, graffiti appeared on walls: 'Their spirit lives.'

*There were many plots to assassinate Hitler during the war. Within the German conservative elite and the German General Staff small pockets of opponents of the Nazi regime existed. After the important Soviet victory at Stalingrad in early 1943, when it looked as though the tide was turning against the German army, in July 1944, a coalition of these groups made an unsuccessful attempt on the life of Adolf Hitler. Hitler escaped the bomb blast with minor injuries. The four leaders of the conspiracy were immediately shot. Later, 200 other individuals convicted of involvement in the plot were executed.

ANTI-NAZI ORGANIZATIONS. Resistance outside Germany
http://motlc.wiesenthal.org/pages/t066/t06664.html

Resistance occurred in Nazi-occupied areas outside Germany. Throughout occupied Europe, various organizations arose, usually in secret, to oppose the Nazi menace. Some were politically oriented, while others were of a military nature. In France, General Charles de Gaulle advocated open resistance against the collaborationist Vichy regime. In some countries, such as Holland and Denmark, there were grass-roots efforts to thwart the Nazis. After the German occupation of Denmark in April 1940, a resistance movement began operations there; its activities included killing informers, raiding German military facilities, and sabotaging rail lines. In February 1941 the Dutch population mounted a general strike in protest against arrests and brutal treatment of Jews.

In the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Greece, and Poland, guerrilla fighters, called partisans, offered armed resistance and engaged in anti-Nazi sabotage. In May 1942, Czech agents assassinated Reinhard Heydrich, the Nazi governor of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. In retaliation, the Nazis shot all of the men in the village of Lidice.
Yugoslavia, Marxist, Josip Broz -Tito, led staunch resistance. In August 1944, the Polish Home Army began a revolt (Warsaw Polish uprising). Within two months, the Nazis suppressed the rebellion. That same month, Slovak partisans launched an armed struggle (the Slovak national uprising) against the pro-German Hlinka government.

Members of other victimized groups resisted the Nazis. In May 1944, SS men ordered Roma (Gypsies) to leave their barracks at the Auschwitz Gypsy family camp (presumably to be sent to the gas chambers). Armed with knives and axes, the Roma refused to leave. The SS men retreated.
Other forms of non-violent resistance included sheltering Jews, listening to forbidden Allied radio broadcasts, and producing clandestine anti-Nazi newspapers.

Jewish Resistance against the Third Reich
http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/ http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/timeline/resist.htm

Synopsis

The ‘Jewish reaction patterns’ to a threat have taken 5 forms: armed resistance, alleviation, evasion, paralysis, & compliance. During the Holocaust, all five were a response to various incidents at various times. There were many examples of armed & spiritual resistance in the death camps & ghettos.

Historian Raoul Hilberg has stated: ‘Jewish reaction pattern’ to a threat has taken 5 forms

1. Armed Resistance: This includes violent, confrontational challenges to persecution.

2. Alleviation: All those activities which are designed to avert danger, or, in the event that force has already been used, to diminish its effects. (Examples: petitions, protection payments, and ransom arrangements).

3. Evasion: Jews have placed less hope, less expectation, less reliance, upon the devices of evasion flight, concealment, and hiding. The Jewish tendency has been not to run from, but to survive with, anti-Jewish regimes. Jews have rarely run from a pogrom. Jews have migrated chiefly for two reasons: expulsion and economic depression.

4. Paralysis: This is the inability to respond at all. Paralysis occurs when the obstacles to resistance, to alleviation attempts, and to evasion are just
as formidable as the difficulties of cooperation.

5. Compliance: This is the acceptance of requirements of the authority in order to avoid sanctions or penalties. To the Jews, compliance with anti-Jewish laws or orders has always been equivalent to survival.

History is replete with examples of Jews resisting domination by other nations. The Bible details many of these examples. Jewish rebellions to the Roman Empire occurred frequently (Masada and the Bar Kochba revolt, 132 C.E.).
During the Middle Ages, Jews resisted the persecutions against them in Spain, France, Germany and Russia. They organized self-defense units to fight off attacks of the Russian pogroms. The Jews of Palestine fought along with the British forces in World War I.


Jewish Resistance in Europe


“Two main factors influenced the Jews’ reaction to the impending extermination. In the first place, during the preceding years, the Nazis had done their utmost to rob the Jews of their physical strength, strip them of their self-respect, paralyze their will-power, break up their organizations & completely isolate them from the outside worlds. In fact, the systematic humiliation, starvation, disease & noisome conditions which faced them day in and day out, weakened their ability to resist. ... Another factor was the disbelief shared by most normal human beings. ... Rumors about the death camps were met with skepticism. Late in 1942, news of the death camps & the fate of the Jews deported from the ghettos of Poland spread. In view of the conditions under which the Jews were living and the attitude of their non-Jewish neighbors, it is little wonder that in many cases the Jews failed to resist.”2

‘These murders were done secretly under the ruse of resettlement. The Germans hid their true plans from citizens & inhabitants of the ghettos by claiming that Jews were being resettled in the East. They went so far as to ... just prior to their murder, had the unknowing victims send reassuring postcards back to the ghettos.... Thus did millions of Jews go unwittingly to their deaths with little or no resistance.’3

‘Jewish resistance against the Nazis--planned and spontaneous, armed and unarmed--took many forms throughout the Holocaust. For many, the resistance was a struggle for physical existence. Some escaped through legal or illegal emigration. Others hid. Lastly, there were Jews who were able to disguise themselves as "Aryan" and obtain false papers. They continued the struggle, passing as ordinary couriers, doctors, and civic leaders.

Those Jews who remained, struggled to obtain life's essentials by smuggling the food, clothing, and medicine necessary to survive.’ Resistance occurred in many forms, from the simple act of prayer to the organization of armed partisans to the smuggling of arms, and people into and out of ghettos. These acts of resistance testify to the heroism of those who were faced with such evil circumstances.’

Unarmed resistance & Links
resisters: http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/people/resister.htm

*The Nazi policy of brutal reprisals against the whole ghetto community for any individual act of Jewish resistance, combined with a lack of weapons & the continued hope of surviving the war & occupation, initially repressed armed resistance in ghettos. In addition, fake Nazi promises of resettlement encouraged false hopes of survival.

Millions of Jews were ordered to board trains & were locked in until the trains arrived at an unknown destination. *Thousands worked in forced labor.
*Millions of others led a brutal existence in concentration camps, slowly wasting away as musselmen (Musulmans: apathetic prisoners like walking automatons) until they died. Questions have been raised as to whether the Jews went like sheep to the slaughter, or whether there was resistance. Since the death camps required the work of Jews in order to make the camps function efficiently, the question has also been raised as to whether Jews share some of the responsibility for the horror of the Holocaust.

For most of Jews who died in the gas chamber, the issue of resistance was not an issue at all.
*Until as late as mid-1942, the Jews were unaware that the Final Solution was being implemented. Stripped of weapons, facing starvation and disease, the prospect of deportation combined with offers of food was an incentive for Jews to board the trains which took them to their deaths. Most believed what they were told that they were going to be relocated to work. For virtually all, the reality that they faced immediate death did not occur until the doors of the gas chambers were sealed, the lights were turned off, and the smell of gas was perceived. By then, it was too late.

The concept of annihilation was inconceivable to the Jews; the 1st & major problem was to accept an impossible reality. E-mail - From: FK
... From a personal viewpoint, I recommend reading the memoirs of Wiesel. He describes without personal comments the events in his village. The Jews were still "free" during the Warsaw uprising. Elie quotes his mother: "Why didn't they wait until the end of the war?" ... *The tactics of the Nazis were diabolic, adapted to the level of the Jews involved. The tragical result is that both the assimilated Western Jews and the Hassidim in the East were fooled or misled, and the Holocaust took place. Still, more Western Jews escaped in time and the Hungarian Jews were caught in 1944 only. Here is the account which Wiesel gives - not verbatim, and without comments on his part!

When the Germans arrived, the officers had white gloves and kissed the hands of the Jewish women. They brought flowers and took up rooms in the Jewish houses. During the entry of the German,s, the Jews were holding a service in the Synagogue which was not interrupted by the Germans. The Jews were delighted, the older ones comparing the behavior of German officers during WWI. "The Germans are good after all!" It took very little time afterward to round up most of the Jews to Auschwitz.

An outsider happened to escape, returning to the shtetl. He told the story. Nobody believed him and he became a loner. Episodes like the last one were not unique to the shtetl, they happened in Slovakia, for example. But there, the Jewish community took the story seriously and finally got the news through to Switzerland. F.K.


Those who did resist, either by running from the trains, or attacking their captors, faced certain death. Some took advantage of this option and were summarily executed on the spot. Others chose to take their own lives when faced with the hopelessness of the situation. It might be argued that suicide under these circumstances was itself resistance.
For others, deciding not to commit suicide but rather to make an attempt at survival amidst the hopelessness and despair of this situation was their resistance. ‘In spite of the terrible conditions in the ghettos, the Jews resisted and fought for survival... help one another ... organized underground movement was active in every sphere of life.’4 Jews in the ghettos and camps also responded to Nazi oppression with forms of spiritual resistance.

Spiritual Resistance

While there were examples of courageous armed uprisings in the ghettos, resistance also took forms without weapons. Many Jews covertly defied the Nazis in political, economic, cultural, and religious ways. Jews in the ghettos and camps also responded to Nazi oppression with forms of spiritual resistance. For many, attempting to carry on a semblance of "normal" life in the face of wretched conditions was resistance. David Altshuler writes in Hitler's War Against the Jews about life in the ghettos, which sustained Jewish culture in the midst of hopelessness and despair. ‘As fear and terror became everyday truths for many Europeans during the Holocaust, standards of daily reality shifted dramatically. The very act of survival became an act of defiance. On February 20, 1941, while living in the Warsaw ghetto, Chaim Kaplan wrote in his diary, "It is almost a mitzvah (an honorable deed) to dance. Every dance is a protest against our oppressors.

‘The creation of Jewish cultural institutions, the continuance of religious observance, and the will to remember and tell the story of the Jews (through, for example, the Oneg Shabbat archive in Warsaw) were conscious attempts to preserve the history and communal life of the Jewish people despite Nazi efforts to eradicate the Jews from human memory:’

*"All forms of culture sustained life in the ghetto. Since curfew rules did not allow people on the street from 7 p.m. until 5 a.m. the next morning, socializing had to be among friends living [in] the same building or visitors who spent the night. Card playing was very popular, and actors, musicians, comics, singers, and dancers all entertained small groups who came together for a few hours to forget their daily terror and despair." Artists and poets as well entertained, and their works, many of which survive today, are poignant reminders of the horrors of the period.
Printing underground newspapers, hiding written accounts of daily life, and holding concerts or plays in the ghettos were other ways that Jews defied the Nazi authorities.

*Historian Emanuel Ringelblum initiated
and directed a collection of diaries and documents chronicling the life of Jews in Warsaw during German occupation. He buried the material in crates and milk cans with the hope it would be found after the war; ‘the Oneg Shabbat archive in Warsaw were conscious attempts to preserve the history and communal life of the Jewish people despite Nazi efforts to eradicate the Jews from human memory.’5

*In a dehumanizing environment, the maintenance of morale by cultural & educational activities was equally a form of resistance. ‘Observance of Judaism was illegal, yet during the Holocaust many Jews continued their religious traditions secretly. Community and individual worship, religious study, and religious teaching continued underground. Secretly participating in Jewish rituals was also a form of spiritual resistance, which helped to sustain a sense of dignity and heritage. Praying was against the rules, but synagogue services occurred with regularity. The education of Jewish children was forbidden, but the ghetto communities set up schools. The observance of many Jewish rituals, including dietary laws, was severely punished by the Nazis, and many Jews took great risks to resist the Nazi edicts against these activities. Committees were organized to meet the philanthropic, religious, educational, and cultural community needs. Many of these committees defied Nazi authority.

*‘A network of Jewish self-help organizations arose out of existing pre-war service groups.
In the Warsaw ghetto, these groups offered food at public and children's kitchens, distributed clothing and furniture, provided child care activities, helped refugees find housing, and performed other community work.’


*Dr. Janusz Korczak
. http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/people/korczak.htm
He was a pediatrician and the head of an outstanding orphanage in Warsaw. When the children in his orphanage were deported to Treblinka, Dr. Korczak chose to go with them. He perished there with the children in August, 1942.

‘Before the war, numerous Jewish political parties focused on winning legitimacy as citizens of their country. During the war, however, these political parties were outlawed and some disintegrated. Other parties survived and operated clandestinely, transforming themselves into underground resistance organizations. Their focus shifted to providing food, receiving and transmitting news and information, and boosting morale. Newspapers were forbidden, but almost every underground party published one.

*The penalty for possession of a radio was death
. Yet, in Lódz, an underground group operated a radio listening post for five years. News from abroad was an important antidote to apathy and helped people to see a fuller picture of the war effort throughout Europe.’

*‘Jews created an underground economy as a way to resist the Nazis. There were illegal mills and workshops operating for the clandestine marketplace. Smuggling formed a bridge between producers and consumers on both sides of the ghetto walls. Food smuggled into the ghettos was critical for keeping Jews alive.’
Smuggling of food necessary to survival was punished by death. Therefore, the smuggling of food became an act of resistance.
Writings, oral histories of survivors of labor & concentration camps are filled with accounts of simple sabotage. Material for the German war effort, for example, might be mysteriously defective, the result of intentionally shoddy workmanship by Jewish slave labor.

*‘Jews sabotaged the operations of forced labor factories
by working slowly or destructively--starting fires or purposefully damaging equipment that they were supposed to be repairing.

Some Jews escaped death by hiding in the attics and cellars and closets of non-Jews, who themselves risked certain death if their actions were discovered by the Nazis.

THE FINAL CHOICE: JEWISH ARMED RESISTANCE
http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/resources/courage/p25.html


"Let us not be led like sheep to the slaughter!...Better to fall in the fight for human dignity than to live at the mercy of the murderer." Abba Kovner, Vilna Ghetto, January, 1942


Jewish armed resistance to the Holocaust did occur. This resistance can be divided into 3 basic types of armed resistance: ghetto revolts, resistance in concentration and death camps, and partisan warfare. Many of those who participated in resistance of this type were caught and executed, and their stories will never be told.
In addition to widespread partisan movements across Europe, armed rebellions occurred in Jewish ghettos and concentration camps. It was clear that the insurgents did not have a real chance to stop the Nazis, but their efforts were an affirmation of the determination to prevail.


Places - LOCATIONS OF RESISTANCE

http://motlc.wiesenthal.org/pages/t066/t06694.html

In every country under Nazi domination, there were those who rose up in rebellion. In cities and ghettos, in forests and fields, partisans and underground fighters took up arms. Even in concentration and death camps, with their dying breaths, Jews fought for their liberty against their Nazi oppressors

Problems of armed resistance. Open resistance was extremely difficult. The attitude toward resistance in the ghetto:

*In the Vilna ghetto as in many others, the Judenrat leaders taught survival in submission;
general population accepted that ideology.
- Weapon supply was a major problem.
Generally, Polish & other non-Jewish sources were unwilling to provide arms for the Jews; arms obtained by purchase with a great deal of money, or by theft.
- No intelligence of Nazi activity
- Would partisans be antisemitic?
- What about local population likely to help the Nazis to round up the Jews?
Resistance movements needed outside support from allied governments or governments-in-exile. Great Britain and the Soviet Union were the primary sources of resistance support.

*Isolated by the Nazis & the largely indifferent
or hostile local non-Jewish population, starved Jewish communities could do little concerted activity. No government-in-exile supported Jewish resistance; no access to arms caches.
Those that resisted more actively found that any success resulted in unintended consequences.

*The Nazis
practiced the doctrine of collective responsibility. Thus, if a Nazi soldier was murdered by a Jew, not only was that Jew executed, but also his family, and perhaps a hundred other Jews. As a result, few Jews even considered carrying out this active resistance for fear of reprisals. Resistance was very hazardous, and not only to those engaged in it. *Retaliation & responsibility to the group was also a deterrent to resistance. There was a great risk of immediate retaliation by the Nazis to the larger Jewish population after an insurrection.

*Pictures: Germans burn village of Radovna (Yugoslavia), in reprisal, after having killed 20 women & children
Hangings in Minsk, October 1941, in which the Lithuanian battalions participated. CL:SW*


ARMED GHETTO RESISTANCE Click on ‘Jewish Revolts, 1942-45’ after clicking on ‘Map’ at: http://holocaust.about.com/education/holocaust/mlibrary.htm


Despite difficulties, there was armed resistance in many ghettos. Resistance became possible, for some at least, with the realization that death was inevitable, & evolved slowly. Time was needed to accept the unbelievable.

*Underground Jewish organizations sprang up in the ghettos
to serve as alternatives to the Judenrat, some of which were established with a military component to organize resistance to the Nazis.
As the war continued and conditions for Jews throughout Europe worsened, resistance intensified. With a growing awareness of the "Final Solution," resistance turned to forms of guerrilla warfare. *... once it became clear that the Nazi intent was total annihilation of all Jews, resistance fighters in the ghettos prepared for the fight to survive, to avenge the murdered, or at least to die fighting.* ‘As the sense of death's inevitability became abundantly clear, the youth of the Jewish political movements began to organize armed resistance against the Germans. Such resistance was as much an act of desperation and an open expression of defiance as it was an act of real self-defense.

*Armed resistance took place within the ghettos and camps
, and in collaboration with the resistance "on the Aryan side," which included partisan groups. Arms were also bought from Poles and Russians, at great cost and at enormous risk.’
Organized armed resistance was the most forceful form of Jewish opposition to the Nazis.

*In the ghettos, two divergent views of resistance emerged. One perspective was that a last stand of honor and vengeance should be shown in the ghetto before its liquidation. The other view was that Jewish armed resisters would do better outside the ghetto, once joined up with the Russian partisans in the woods.’

Jewish Partisans
http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/timeline/resist.htm

A few Jews were able to escape the ghettos and join existing partisan forces.
Pictures: Jewish partisans in Parczew forest, 1943. CL:Yad Vashem
Jewish partisans under command of Yechiel Greenspan, Lublin, 1944. CL:Yad Vashem
Abba Kovner (center, standing) with partisan unit. CL: Yad Vashem*


‘Many Jews fought as part of the national resistance movements in Belgium, France, Italy, Poland, and other countries in eastern Europe.’

*
Many resisters left the ghetto to join existing partisan groups in ‘Eastern Europe, especially Belorussia, the western Ukraine, and Lithuania, -had wide expanses of forests and swamps which were ideal for guerrilla warfare. Joseph Stalin called for the establishment of an underground movement in the occupied territories to fight the enemy, and in June 1942, central headquarters were established for the entire partisan movement.’

Ghettos were the recruiting grounds of Jewish partisans. Jewish youth joined the Soviet partisan movement. They lived in the woods & used weapons that they had stolen or received through governments-in-exile. Some of the partisan units were all Jewish; many were not. With the influx of Jews into the partisan movement, family camps evolved, especially in Belorussia. These camps ranged from a few families to several 100s families. Families took refuge in forests primarily in an effort to save their lives, & secondarily to fight the enemy.

CITIES AND GHETTOS
http://motlc.wiesenthal.org/pages/t066/t06696.html

‘Armed rebellions occurred in the Kletzk, Kremenets, Lachva, Mir, Bialystok, and Tuchin ghettos. Jewish resistance was concentrated in the Polish ghettos of Warsaw, Krakow, Bialystok and Vilna. They knew that armed resistance by a few could not save the Jewish masses from destruction. But they fought for the sake of Jewish honor and to avenge the Nazi slaughter of so many Jews. ‘For the Jewish combatants in the ghettos there was no prospect of victory or being saved by fighting, but uprisings were nonetheless acts of national and human significance.’6 Some Jewish council (Judenrat) chairmen resisted by noncompliance, and refused to hand over Jews for deportation.

Tuchin Ghetto
: On September 3, 1942, seven hundred Jewish families escaped from this ghetto in the Ukraine. They were hunted down, and only 15 survived.

The Warsaw Ghetto Revolt: April-May 1943. Jewish Resistance
http://motlc.wiesenthal.org/text/x25/xm2502.html
‘The Germans ran twice from the Ghetto....The dream of my life has risen to become a fact....Jewish armed resistance & revenge are facts. I have been witness to the magnificent, heroic fighting of Jewish men of battle.’ Mordecai Anielewicz, Warsaw Ghetto, Apr 23, 1943

*‘The Warsaw Ghetto revolt (April-May 1943) was the most notable; the largest Jewish uprising against the Nazis and the 1st armed revolt in occupied Europe.’
*It was sparked by rumors that the Nazis would deport the remaining ghetto inhabitants to the Treblinka extermination camp in Poland -
that they were not being resettled.
In November, 1942, the Warsaw ghetto-based Jewish Combat Organization (Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa; ZOB) was formed.
*Mordechai Anielewicz was the brave commander-in-chief.

By 1943, the ghetto residents had organized an army of about 1,000 fighters, mostly unarmed and without equipment. They were joined by thousands of others, mostly the young and able-bodied, still needed for forced labor. By that time, the half-million original inhabitants had been depleted to about 60,000 as a result of starvation, disease, cold, and deportation.

In January 1943, S.S. entered ghetto to round up more Jews for shipment to the death camps. They were met by a volley of bombs, Molotov cocktails, & the bullets from a few firearms which had been smuggled into the ghettos (The Polish underground supplied them with 60 pistols of poor quality together with a very limited amount of ammunition). Twenty S.S. soldiers were killed. The action encouraged a few members of the Polish resistance to support the uprising, & a few machine guns, some hand grenades, and about a hundred rifles & revolvers were smuggled in.

April 19, 1943. http://motlc.wiesenthal.org/text/x34/xm3422.html
http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/timeline/resist.htm

‘April 19, 1943 marked the beginning of an armed revolt by a courageous and determined group of Warsaw ghetto dwellers.
*Desperate and with few weapons, the remaining Jews of the Warsaw Ghetto rose in revolt on the eve of Passover, April 19, 1943. For the first time, the entire ghetto resisted the Nazis--those who had arms fought, and even those without arms refused to surrender and improvised Molotov cocktails and other weapons.
The Jewish Fighter Organization (ZOB) led the insurgency and battled for a month, using weapons smuggled into the ghetto.
Facing them were almost 3,000 crack German troops with 7,000 reinforcements available. Tanks and heavy artillery surrounded the ghetto.

General Himmler promised Hitler that the uprising would be quelled in three days, and the ghetto would be destroyed. For three weeks the ghetto's inhabitants held out, until SS General Stroop ordered the burning of the ghetto to force out all resisters and remaining inhabitants.

Pictures: Picture: SS Major General Juergen Stroop commanded the German troops in the Warsaw Ghetto in April and May 1943. CL.NARA
Jewish resisters hide in camouflaged bunkers and sewers during the ghetto revolt. CL
Inhabitants of the Warsaw Ghetto are arrested during the 1943 uprising. CL:BPK

The uprising took 4 weeks to be quelled. The ghetto was reduced to rubble following bomber attacks, gas attacks, and burning of every structure by the Nazis. Fifteen thousand Jews died in the battle, and most of the survivors were shipped to the death camps. Scores of German soldiers were killed. Some historical accounts report that 300 Germans were killed and 1,000 wounded, although the actual figure is unknown.

"Not rarely, the Jews stayed in the burning houses until the heat and fear of being burned to death caused them to jump from the upper floors....With broken bones they would then try to crawl across the street into buildings which were not yet. or only partially, in flames...we succeeded in capturing altogether 56.065 Jews. i.e. definitely destroying them. To this figure should be added Jews who lost their lives in explosions, fires, etc" SS General Stroop, Warsaw Report, May 16, ‘43

Pictures: Women, children surrender after Warsaw Ghetto uprising is suppressed in May ‘43
German soldiers & SS patrol Warsaw Ghetto streets after the uprising in May1943. CL-BPK
The ruins of the Warsaw Ghetto. CL:Joe Heydecker, Vienna and Sao Paulo, Brazil
"There is no longer a Jewish Residential Quarter in Warsaw"
was the title of SS General Stroop's report on the suppression of the Warsaw Ghetto uprising.

"They (the Jewish Fighting Organization) considered it a victory if a part of those imprisoned in the ghetto were able to escape: it was a victory in their eyes if the forces of the enemy were weakened just a little: and finally-it was a victory in their eyes to die while their hands still grasped arms."
Biuletyn Informacyjny, No. 17, the underground Information Bulletin, Apr 29, ‘43. After the war, Stroop was tried, sentenced & hanged for ‘crimes against humanity’ committed during the destruction of the Warsaw Ghetto. *
Late summer of 1943 saw armed uprisings at several ghettos and camps.

3. Bialystok Ghetto On August 1943, Jewish paramilitary organizations formed within the ghetto attacked the German army when it was determined that the Nazis intended to liquidate it. The battle lasted just one day, until the resisters were killed or captured.

4. Vilna Ghetto On Sept. 1st, ‘43, some inhabitants of the Vilna Ghetto began an uprising against their Nazi captors. Most participants were killed, although a few escaped successfully and joined partisan units. Resistance continued, even in the death camps.

CONCENTRATION CAMPS http://motlc.wiesenthal.org/pages/t066/t06695.html

Armed Resistance in the Death Camps http://motlc.wiesenthal.org/text/x07/xm0712.html

The existence of the extermination camps and their operations were classified as top secret, with the SS coordinating an elaborate system of diversion and deception around them. There were audacious attempts by Jews to escape from the camps. Only a few succeeded, and the survivors revealed the truth about the camps to the outside world. Uprisings occurred at three extermination camps. At Sobibor and Treblinka, prisoners with stolen weapons attacked the SS staff and their Ukrainian auxiliary guards. Most of the rebels were shot, though several dozen prisoners escaped. The majority of those who escaped during these outbreaks were captured and killed. Courtesy of: "Encyclopedia of the Holocaust" ©1990 Macmillan Publishing Company. N ew York, NY 10022

1. Treblinka On August 2, 1943, inmates of Treblinka, in an armed revolt, killed SS men and escaped the death camp. Seven hundred Jews were successful in blowing up the camp. All but 150-200 Jews perished, as well as over 20 Germans. Fleeing to the woods, some joined the partisan struggle. Only 12 survived the war. An embarrassed Heinrich Himmler ordered the gas chambers closed down and the camp leveled.

2. *Sobibor
*On October 14, 1943, Jewish and Russian prisoners mounted an escape attempt. About 60 of 600 prisoners involved in the escape survived to join Soviet partisans. Ten S.S. guards were killed and one wounded.
Sobibor, ceased killing with the successful one day revolt of the prisoners. By that time 200,000 people had died of gassing.

3.
Auschwitz
On October 7, 1944, one of the four crematoria at Auschwitz was blown up by Sonderkommandos. These were workers, mostly Jews, whose job it was to clear away the bodies of gas chamber victims. The workers were all caught and killed; four Jewish women helped Jewish crematorium workers blow up a crematorium. All four rebels were killed.
Anna Heilman obtained gunpowder used to blow up a crematorium at Auschwitz.
Rose Meth smuggled gunpowder for the resistance at Auschwitz.
Rosa Robota organized the smuggling of explosive powder at Auschwitz.

The "Sonderkommando" revolt - Testimony of Fred:

“In Birkenau, for example, a so-called "Sonderkommando" of strong young men was selected and housed separately. They had to go into the gas chambers, take out the gold teeth, separate the bodies, carry them to the ovens and dispose of them. After some three months, they were gassed and another 300 arrived. The SS guarded the outer perimeter of the camp and very few ventured inside excepted for continued selections (after the initial one on the ramp).

I believe, this and other cases shows how well the "camouflage" worked, both and other revolts started when there was no hope and there was no doubt of the coming fate. The "Sonderkommando" revolt started not on the first days of their new duties, but when they expected to be killed the same way as their predecessors. According to Dr. Nyiszli as one of the eyewitnesses of the revolt, this kommando was already the- thirteenth in the history of the crematoriums - According Danuta Czech's Kalendarium, on the 7. October 1944 there were 663 persons working in the 4 crematoria in 4 day as well as in the 4 night shifts.

There are sometimes too much generalization about the past. What might be common knowledge in Germany, Poland, Slovakia, etc. was not necessarily known in other countries. Hungary was until 1944 March 19 more or less spared the fate of the Jews of other countries. Information from refugees coming from Poland, Slovakia were unbelievable & taken with skepticism. I doubt also that what was known in one part of the country was known in the whole country.

It sounds may be naive from our present knowledge, but in the 40.s when my father planned our house, he expected that it might be forbidden for Jews to have their shops/business on the main street, so one corner of our 42 or 43 finished house had one corner unfinished to be able to accommodate in short time our radio, electro and installation shop. We expected to be deported in work camps, the men (19 - 48) were already drawn into forced labor camps, so my
father just before or after the German invasion contracted me (pro forma) as an apprentice to have an easier job as a skilled worker . A Christian friend and his father offered me to hide me on their farm, which we refused as the end of the war was nearing the end. About 4 month after our deportation to Auschwitz (3118 person 26. June 1944) in October or November my hometown was already liberated by the Russians. Even after arriving to Auschwitz/Birkenau it took some time until we new the fate of our parents, relatives, friends as well as what do we have to expect from the future.

Greek Jews in the Auschwitz Uprising. http://motlc.wiesenthal.org/text/x09/xm0917.html
Greek Jews displayed heroism in Auschwitz. One group of 400, selected to expedite the destruction of Hungarian Jews, refused, knowing the penalty was death. One hundred thirty - five Greek Jews, former Greek army officers participated in the revolt that broke out in the camp in the autumn of 1944. Nearly all died in the fray.

*In most Nazi satellite or occupied countries, Jewish resistance focused on aid and rescue. Jewish authorities in Palestine sent clandestine parachutists such as Hannah Szenes into Hungary and Slovakia to aid Jews. *Hannah Szenes was captured, tortured, and executed after parachuting into Yugoslavia and crossing the border into Hungary in an attempt to rescue Allied prisoners and her mother. Resistance continued until the end of the war.

COUNTRIES AND REGIONS http://motlc.wiesenthal.org/pages/t066/t06697.html
[Algeria] [Belgium] [Belorussia] [France] [Germany] [Greece] [Holland] [Hungary]
[Lithuania] [Luxembourg] [Poland] [Slovakia] [Ukraine] [Silesia, Upper Eastern]

Coordinating Resistance in Western Europe

*In western Europe, large scale guerrilla movement was impossible due to the more open topography. However, there were acts of organized armed resistance.
In France, various elements of the Jewish underground consolidated to form the Armee Juive (Jewish Army). in the summer and autumn of 1942: In the north, at this time, 1943, only fifteen thousand Jews lived openly in Paris. Alongside material aid to the needy, armed resistance emerged in Paris, within a number of organizations like Solidarite and the ARMEE JUIVE/Jewish Army. In the south by the beginning of 1943, the UGIF and the Central Consistory made a rapid rapprochement, and at the end of the year the Consistory and Jewish organizations outside the UGIF also made an alliance. In 1944 Jewish leaders set aside their ideological differences still further, founding the CONSEIL REPRESENTATIF DES JUIFS DE FRANCE (Representative Council of French Jewry; CRIF) to coordinate resistance activity among the Jewish groups. Hundreds of Jews from its and the Armee Juives' ranks lost their lives in military encounters with the Germans.

French Jewry lost some 78,000 during the Holocaust, but it also showed an ability to confront the catastrophe with diverse forms of aid, assistance, and resistance.
The Allied landing in Normandy on June 6, 1944, signaled the end of the occupation. The liberation of France came two months later, and as de Gaulle marched triumphantly into Paris, Vichy officials fled ignominiously to Germany. They would later be returned to Paris and tried for treason. Courtesy of: "Encyclopedia of the Holocaust"

In total, partisans were relatively few in number, but because of their ability to move within enemy territory they could disrupt Nazi activity.
*Partisans interfered with enemy communication by cutting telephone, telegraph, and electrical lines and by destroying power stations. They sabotaged transportation links by blowing up bridges, roads, and railway equipment, and they sabotaged factories that produced materials for the Axis war effort.’

Map
Click on ‘Jewish Partisans’ after clicking on ‘Map’ at:
http://holocaust.about.com/education/holocaust/mlibrary.htm or at:
http://holocaust.about.com/education/holocaust/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.bxscience.edu/orgs/holocaust/edmap/

February 2, 1943, Stalingrad Relieved on
Nov. 8, 1942, Anglo-American forces liberate Algeria & Morocco; liberation
8th Nov. 1942, Anglo-American Landings In North Africa, liberation
9th Nov. 1942-May 13, 1943; Germany occupation of Tunisia
May 1943, Germany was declared "free of Jews."
May 13, 1943, Germans & Italians defeated in North Africa
May 16, 1943, Jewish resistance in the Warsaw ghetto end.
June 11, Himmler orders the liquidation of all Jewish ghettos in Poland.

Jewish Resistance outside Europe
. Course of WWII
http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/gallery/pg48/pg6/pg48673.html

1942. Turn of the tide. Allied Victory
. Defeat of the Axis
Allies - The Grande Alliance: 26 allied nations led by Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union that joined in war against Nazi Germany, Italy, Japan, and their allies, known as the Axis powers. US’s war policy: to defeat Germany before Japan. Allied strength enormous, & it was aided by the resistance groups, many of which were communist. America strength lay in its industry & national unity
Battles responsible for reversing the tide of the war: Midway, Stalingrad -February 2, 1943, El Alamein: (see lecture 11b)

* Algeria. Jews and the Resistance Movement (120,000 Jews).
http://motlc.wiesenthal.org/text/x01/xm0143.html

Jewish resistance formed. The Jews averted total destruction through their initiative and participation in the resistance. Their resistance activities helped neutralize Algiers while the Americans landed in the country. Algerian Jews ... joined the underground in large numbers after its establishment in 1940. Indeed, the Algerian resistance movement had its start when a few young Jews, some of them former French army officers, organized into a self-defense unit. Other Jewish underground cells also came into being and they formed a link and established contact with the some French politicians and senior officers of the French secret service, who had come to Algeria to prepare the ground for resuming the fight against the Germans. At the end of October 1942 the Americans informed the Algerian resistance of their planned landings on the shores of Algeria and Morocco, requesting them to take an active part by seizing the strategic points in Algiers, Oran and Casablanca. In Oran and Casablanca they failed, but in Algiers the underground accomplished its task in full. Of the 377 resistance members who seized control of Algiers during the night of November 7-8; 315 were Jews.

First Liberations: Algeria, Morocco, & Libya. Continued Persecution
http://www.topedge.com/panels/ww2/na/frame.html
‘Operation Torch’ - The Anglo-American Landings In North Africa, 8th Nov. 1942
http://www.topedge.com/panels/ww2/na/frame.html

Jan. 23, 1943 Tripoli in Libya. http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/pages/t044/t04485.html
(30,000 Jews) North African colony, was liberated; end of Italian rule in Libya, and all the racist legislation was rescinded. Jewish units from Palestine were among the British soldiers who finally conquered Libya, and they obtained permission from the authorities to organize relief for the Jews.

Jews of Tunisia; Resistance http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/gallery/pg48/pg6/pg48673.html

“The fate of Tunisian Jews during World War II differed from that of Jews in the other countries of North Africa; they were the only ones who experienced direct German occupation, which began in November 1942.”7

The Tunisian Jewish Resistance & Sabotage 8

The Jews played an important role in the Resistance in Tunisia. In 1940, when movements of resistance were organized in Tunisia under Vichy, to provide political information to the Allies, about half of their members were Jewish men and women. One of the first resistance organization was set up by Mounier, with the help of Alfred Rossi, a Jewish lawyer and sionist, officer of reserve. Officers of reserve from the French army were members of resistance organizations. Many more were the Jews from different nationality -Tunisians, French & Italian, who were members of resistance by the Communist Party
When Mounier died in an action in Malte, Rossi was in charge; was killed in Sicily, while as a prisoner, he tried to escape; received Croix de Guerre, Legion d'Honneur.
(compiled from: Jacques Sabille, Les Juifs de Tunisie sous Vichy et l’Occupation, Centre de Documentation Juive Conetemporaine, Paris, 1954)
Tunis was liberated May 7, 1943; six days later, the battle for Tunisia was over.

---------------------------------------------------

ADDENDUM


Treatment of the Jews after the Liberation
Algeria was liberated by the Americans; but anti-Jewish laws remained in effect well after the liberation; ... Charles de Gaulle took over from Giraud in May 1943, and only three months later did he re-invoke the Cremieux Decree. racist laws annulled on March 14, 1943, also in Morocco. Little changed until late 1944. Late in 1944 dozens of Jewish refugees were still imprisoned in concentration camps, and it took even longer to purge the Algerian administration fully of all the pro-Vichy elements, who as long as they were in office, persisted in treating the Jews as though nothing had changed since November 1942.

* Morocco (150,000 Jews) http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/pages/t051/t05178.html
French right - wingers and some Muslims ... in Casablanca ... attacked the Jews only seconds after American troops had held their 1st march trough the city. ... Gen. Henri Giraud, commander in chief of the French forces, had abolished the racist laws in March 1943. ... Jews were also discriminated against in the allocation of food rations, which was based on racist criteria. The Allied invasion on November 8, 1942 saved the Jews of Morocco from the ‘Final Solution.’

Fate of the Jews in the Camps. A long time elapsed before the prisoners in the labor camps were set free. This was not only because the French authorities were in no hurry to open the camps; it was also because foreign bodies, such as the Polish government - in - exile, were not willing to accept their nationals. ... Officially the camps were closed down in April 1943, but until the summer of that year, 700 Jewish prisoners were still being held there.

The Tunisian Jewish Resistance & Sabotage
9
Victor Attias, also member of the Mounier resistance as Rossi, was actif in Malte; was in the R.A.F.; received Croix de Guerre, Legion d'Honneur. Sylvain Lumbroso, member of the Mounier resistance, organized the department of renseignements, spying for the Allies; was helped by Andre Nataf, Raoul Sitruk, Jules Cohen-Solal, Dr. Albert Benattar, Lucien Lumbroso, decoration of "Croix de Guerre," & Raymond Uzan ...

Henry Smadja, Croix de Guerre, Legion d'Honneur. Francoise Grumbach, decoration of "Croix de Guerre.” Maurice Taib, deported to Sachsenhausen, and Buchenwald, came back, decoration of "Croix de Guerre.” Louise Hannon, deported to Germany, came back - decoration of "Croix de Guerre.” Sylvain Karoubi, prisoner, survived the tortures. Raoul Benattar, Samuel Benattar, Maurice Nizard, Georges Attal, , Emile Barron,
(compiled from: Jacques Sabille, Les Juifs de Tunisie sous Vichy et l’Occupation, Centre de Documentation Juive Conetemporaine, Paris, 1954)

Allied advance into North Africa. Liberation
http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/gallery/pg48/pg6/pg48675.html

... But this was not the end of the troubles of the Tunisian Jews. As soon as the French came back, dozens of Jews holding Italian nationality were arrested, on charges of "collaborating" with the enemy. They were put into the same camps that were being emptied of the forced laborers imprisoned by the Nazis, and several weeks went by before they were released. Courtesy of: "Encyclopedia of the Holocaust" ©1990 New York, NY 10022
Resisters, Rescuers, and Bystanders: http://www.remember.org/guide/wit.root.wit.res.html

VOCABULARY


Collective responsibility - The doctrine which asserts that a group is responsible for the actions of its individuals, and thus can be punished for those actions.

Deportation - The forced transport of people outside of the area where they live.

Judenrat - Jewish councils established by the Nazis in occupied territories to represent Jewish interests.

Molotov cocktail - A homemade grenade consisting of a flammable liquid encased in a bottle.

Musselmen (Muselmanner) - "Walking dead," a term referring to those in the concentration camps who were so totally physically and
emotionally exhausted that they became completely passive and dependent, losing their individuality and self-esteem.

Partisans - Guerrilla fighters who resisted the Nazis after their countries were overrun and occupied.

Passive resistance - Resistance which is other than through force, such as spiritual, religious, or cultural resistance.

Resistance - Acts, both passive and active, which are non-compliance to the demands of an authority.

Sanctions - Penalties levied by an authority for not complying with an order or law.

Underground - A secret network which is organized to resist authority.

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising - The most serious armed resistance by the Jews to the Nazis, which resulted in the deaths of many German soldiers.

* Resisters, Rescuers, and Bystanders: http://www.remember.org/guide/wit.root.wit.res.html
* Jewish Resistance. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/index.php?ModuleId=10005213
* A Righteous Few: Survival in Hiding and Rescue
http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/resources/courage/p34.html
* RESISTANCE. http://motlc.wiesenthal.org/pages/t066/t06693.html
* Jewish Resistance. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/index.php?ModuleId=10005213
* A Righteous Few: Survival in Hiding and Rescue
http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/resources/courage/p34.html
* Resistance and Rescue http://motlc.wiesenthal.org/pages/rr.html
* JEWISH RESISTANCE
http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005213
* NON-JEWISH RESISTANCE
http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005420










ADDENDUM

French Resistance to Allied Invasion of North Africa
http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/text/x20/xm2027.html

The planners of Operation Torch had known that its first big hurdle would be of French rather than German making. http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/gallery/pg50/pg1/pg50125.html:
French troops swore allegiance to the Vichy government and were ordered to resist the Allies in North Africa. Under General Patton, the Allies emerged victorious in November 1942.

First Liberations
: Algeria, Morocco, & Libya. Continued Persecution
http://www.topedge.com/panels/ww2/na/frame.html
‘Operation Torch’ - The Anglo-American Landings In North Africa, 8th Nov. 1942
http://www.topedge.com/panels/ww2/na/frame.html

Nov. 8, 1942: The American invasion of North Africa did not have any immediate effect of the position of Jews in Morocco & Algeria.

* Algeria. Jews and the Resistance Movement (120,000 Jews).
http://motlc.wiesenthal.org/text/x01/xm0143.html

Jewish resistance formed. The Jews averted total destruction through their initiative and participation in the resistance. Their resistance activities helped neutralize Algiers while the Americans landed in the country. Algerian Jews ... joined the underground in large numbers after its establishment in 1940. Indeed, the Algerian resistance movement had its start when a few young Jews, some of them former French army officers, organized into a self-defense unit. Other Jewish underground cells also came into being and they formed a link and established contact with the some French politicians and senior officers of the French secret service, who had come to Algeria to prepare the ground for resuming the fight against the Germans. At the end of October 1942 the Americans informed the Algerian resistance of their planned landings on the shores of Algeria and Morocco, requesting them to take an active part by seizing the strategic points in Algiers, Oran and Casablanca. In Oran and Casablanca they failed, but in Algiers the underground accomplished its task in full. Of the 377 resistance members who seized control of Algiers during the night of November 7-8; 315 were Jews.

Treatment of the Jews after the Liberation
Algeria was liberated by the Americans; but anti-Jewish laws remained in effect well after the liberation; ... Charles de Gaulle took over from Giraud in May 1943, and only three months later did he reinvoke the Cremieux Decree. racist laws annulled on March 14, 1943, also in Morocco. Little changed until late 1944. Late in 1944 dozens of Jewish refugees were still imprisoned in concentration camps, and it took even longer to purge the Algerian administration fully of all the pro-Vichy elements, who as long as they were in office, persisted in treating the Jews as though nothing had changed since November 1942.

* Morocco (150,000 Jews) http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/pages/t051/t05178.html
French right - wingers and some Muslims ... in Casablanca ... attacked the Jews only seconds after American troops had held their 1st march trough the city. ... Gen. Henri Giraud, commander in chief of the French forces, had abolished the racist laws in March 1943. ... Jews were also discriminated against in the allocation of food rations, which was based on racist criteria. The Allied invasion on November 8, 1942 saved the Jews of Morocco from the ‘Final Solution.’

Fate of the Jews in the Camps. A long time elapsed before the prisoners in the labor camps were set free. This was not only because the French authorities were in no hurry to open the camps; it was also because foreign bodies, such as the Polish government - in - exile, were not willing to accept their nationals. ... Officially the camps were closed down in April 1943, but until the summer of that year, 700 Jewish prisoners were still being held there.

Jan. 23, 1943 Tripoli in Libya. http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/pages/t044/t04485.html
(30,000 Jews) North African colony, was liberated; end of Italian rule in Libya, and all the racist legislation was rescinded. Jewish units from Palestine were among the British soldiers who finally conquered Libya, and they obtained permission from the authorities to organize relief for the Jews.

The Tunisian Jewish Resistance & Sabotage
10
Victor Attias, also member of the Mounier resistance as Rossi, was actif in Malte; was in the R.A.F.; received Croix de Guerre, Legion d'Honneur. Sylvain Lumbroso, member of the Mounier resistance, organized the department of renseignements, spying for the Allies; was helped by Andre Nataf, Raoul Sitruk, Jules Cohen-Solal, Dr. Albert Benattar, Lucien Lumbroso, decoration of "Croix de Guerre," & Raymond Uzan ...

Henry Smadja, Croix de Guerre, Legion d'Honneur. Francoise Grumbach, decoration of "Croix de Guerre.” Maurice Taib, deported to Sachsenhausen, and Buchenwald, came back, decoration of "Croix de Guerre.” Louise Hannon, deported to Germany, came back - decoration of "Croix de Guerre.” Sylvain Karoubi, prisoner, survived the tortures. Raoul Benattar, Samuel Benattar, Maurice Nizard, Georges Attal, , Emile Barron,
(compiled from: Jacques Sabille, Les Juifs de Tunisie sous Vichy et l’Occupation, Centre de Documentation Juive Conetemporaine, Paris, 1954)

Allied advance into North Africa. Liberation
http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/gallery/pg48/pg6/pg48675.html

... But this was not the end of the troubles of the Tunisian Jews. As soon as the French came back, dozens of Jews holding Italian nationality were arrested, on charges of "collaborating" with the enemy. They were put into the same camps that were being emptied of the forced laborers imprisoned by the Nazis, and several weeks went by before they were released. Courtesy of: "Encyclopedia of the Holocaust" ©1990 New York, NY 10022

Resisters, Rescuers, and Bystanders:
http://www.remember.org/guide/wit.root.wit.res.html

Copyright Fall 1999, November 2003, January 2004 Edith Shaked
Credit/source: Gary M. Grobman, The Holocaust - A guide for Teachers, 1990
http://www.remember.org/guide/

1 http://www.ushmm.org/education/history.html, pp. 4-5

2 The Holocaust, Yad Vashem, Jerusalem. Martyrs & Heroes Remembrance Authority, pp. 50-51

3 http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/timeline/camps.htm

4 The Holocaust, Yad Vashem, Jerusalem. Martyrs & Heroes Remembrance Authority, p. 67

5 http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/

6 The Holocaust, Yad Vashem, Jerusalem. Martyrs & Heroes Remembrance Authority, p. 72

7 Gutman, Yisrael, ed. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. 4 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1990

8 Sabille, Jacques. Les Juifs de Tunisie sous Vichy et l'Occupation. Paris: Edition du Centre de Documentation Juive Contemporaine, 1954, pp. 130-136

9 Sabille, Jacques. Les Juifs de Tunisie sous Vichy et l'Occupation. Paris: Edition du Centre de Documentation Juive Contemporaine, 1954, pp. 130-136

10 Sabille, Jacques. Les Juifs de Tunisie sous Vichy et l'Occupation. Paris: Edition du Centre de Documentation Juive Contemporaine, 1954, pp. 130-136


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