I. Ideological Roots: Antecedents & Context - Historical Antecedents & Preconditions
Historic Roots of Nazism
TWO-b Antisemitism up to the 17th Century. Why the Jews?
Religious Antisemitism. Dislike of the unlike; marginalization of the disliked other
Ancient & Christian antisemitism
"Moreover, we do not know to this day which devil has brought them [Jews] here . . . like a plague, pestilence, pure misfortune in our country." Martin Luther About the Jews and Their Lies, 1543
Bauer, Who are the Jews? 13-35
* The Courage to Remember http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/resources/courage/p01.html
* Why the Jews? The Patterns of Persecution
History of Antisemitism. http://www.ushmm.org/research/center/persecution/
Introduction to the Holocaust. http://www.ushmm.org/museum/exhibit/focus/maps/
History of the Jewish people and their relationship to the non-Jewish world. The differences Jews had with their non-Jewish neighbors led to separate social and religious lives. Intolerance & suspicion of these differences led to fear & hatred. Classical judophobia, Medieval anti-Judaism, and modern antisemitism each have their own basis.
Instructional Objectives - Students will learn/be able to
1. The history of the Jewish people from its origins.
2. How and why the differences between the religion and culture of the Jews and those of their neighbors caused conflict, which was a precursor of antisemitism.
Anti-Judaism/Judophobia, and Jew-hatred, developed in the ancient world because of intolerance of the religious differences between pagan peoples and the Jews.
Distortion of difference into otherness in ancient Israel & its extension into early Christianity.
3. There were differences between Ancient/Classical anti-Judaism, medieval anti-Judaism, and Modern antisemitism, although many of the roots of this hate were similar.
4. Christianity versus Judaism. Medieval Anti-Judaism in Latin Christendom: Jews were the subject of anti-Judaism by Christians because Jews were viewed as evil and responsible for the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
5. Jews were outcasts, and the targets of massacres, forced conversions, segregation in ghettos, expulsions and humiliating degradations.
7. Lutheranism & the Jews in the Early Modern Era - Lutherss anti-Jewish stance
*Describe and explain the history of hate in Europe, modern antisemitism in the 19th century, the origins of racism, and the social, political, economic and cultural developments that helped create a climate in which the Holocaust could occur
1. How does a society get to this point? Why did Western nations do so little and so very late to save the victims?
2. Why were the Jews the chief victims? 2/3 European Jews killed; 1/2 world
3. What is antisemitism? What are its origins? What changes have there been in the motives for this hatred? Why antisemitism? --->Who are the Jews/the other?
1. Why have people hated Jews since ancient times?
2. How did Jews become scapegoat per excellence? How did Jews come to have an evil image?
3. Why were the Jews persecuted?
4. How the Jews came to be living where they were , and with burdens?
5. What was their relationship to societies they lived in?
6. What was the Early Christian Church's relationship with Judaism/Jews?
7. What did influential Christians write about Jews?
8. What was antisemitism Like in the Middle Ages?
9. What was the impact of the Protestant Reformation on European antisemitism?
10. What was the solution to the Jewish Question?
11. What were the Jewish reactions?
The Holocaust, Shoah, Churban, Judeocide ... is the name we give to the attempted planned total physical annihilation of the Jewish people, and its partial perpetration with the murder of most of the Jews of Europe. ... it was the result, though by no means a necessary result, of a long historic process. ...
People were taken from their homes or hiding places and murdered, for no apparent reason but the consensual will of a murderous society.1
Question arises, why did the Nazis attack the Jews and not some other group? answer Antisemitism, though correct in itself, also begs the question. Why antisemitism and not some other group-hatred? No answer can be given without an analysis of the development of Jewish history, including the dimension of Jewish-non-Jewish relations. ... ..
To better understand events, necessary to provide background in both Jewish and general European history - how the Jews came to be living where they were & with burdens
Study antisemtism serves dual purpose:
- Students must be acquainted with history of antisemitism/centuries of anti-Jewish prejudice -the longest hatred, (2,000 years) and review historically the religious, social and political settings in which this prejudice was born, and flourished. ... & Holocaust (H) must be studied in context of European history (as whole to give perspective on precedents & circumstances that may have contributed to it; H. must be viewed within contemporaneous context, to comprehend circumstances that encouraged/ discouraged particular actions or events. go over chronology);
-but also reviews historically the religious, social & political settings in which this prejudice born & flourished. European history as seedbed of the Holocaust. History of interaction Jews & Gentiles, Christians-Jewish relations during Roman Empire, Early Christianity, Church fathers, Middle Ages, Reformation, Enlightenment, Industrial Revolution and 20th c.: all illuminated by examining their relationship to Jews as a people and to Judaism as a religion.
Various type of antisemitism through the ages.
Unifying link of antisemitism, yesterday, today and forever, is the dislike of the unlike
To place the events of the Holocaust/Shoah in historical perspective, we must first look backward to the history of the Jewish people and their relationship to the non-Jewish world and to antisemitism in ancient, medieval, and modern times. ... 2
To understand why the Jews were killed by Nazis & collaborators, & the silence of bystanders, we must study ancient, medieval & early modern conceptions of Jews
Jewish difference traces origins to biblical times; no assimilation.
Religious antagonism; negative stereotype of Jews as hostile to Gentiles.
I. to 500 C.E. Ancient/Classical world
-Classical Jew-hatred: Polytheism, paganism Greco-Roman gods vs monotheism, Judaism
Patriarch Age: The Hebrews from Abraham to Conquest of Canaan, 1900-1270 bce
*Torah Hebrew name for 1st 5 books of the Law=Pentateuch 1st part Old Testament
The Biblical Story - According to the Bible, the history of the Hebrews (the ancestors of the Jews) begins with the patriarch Abraham. Abraham was the first to forsake the polytheism and idol worshiping of his people for a belief in one God. Abraham lived in Sumer, and around 1900 BCE organized his nomadic people. Later, Abraham led his people through the desert to the borders of northern Canaan, and farther south into Egypt. They settled in the Land of Goshen, east of the Nile Delta. Sarah & Abraham's son, Isaac, and Isaac's son, Jacob, are also considered to be patriarchs by the Jews. Jacob took the name Israel; Lea Rachel. His name was applied to the tribes who settled in Canaan, and some lands near by.
The story of Joseph, one of Jacob's twelve sons, is also found in the Bible. He was sold as a slave to the Egyptians by his brothers. As a result of a famine, the remainder of Joseph's family resettled in Egypt where they and their descendants lived for several generations. The Hebrew lived peacefully in Egypt for some time. In the 1500s BCE, the Egyptians finally expelled the Hyksos, and the pharaohs (ruler) enslaved the Hebrews.
The Books of Exodus, Numbers, & Deuteronomy, describe the story of Moshe -Moses (Prince of Egypt) , & the Exodus -escape of from Egypt: Around 1250 BCE, Moses led the Hebrews out of slavery in Egypt, after the Egyptians were afflicted with ten plagues, and into the deserts of the Sinai Peninsula. The exodus was understood as a symbol of emergence from slavery to freedom (liberation from bondage), as a symbol of hope3 (of freedom); and American Blacks also interpreted it that way.
While in the desert, Moses ascended Mt. Sinai, had a Divine Revelation, and returned with the Ten Commandments (the moral laws the Hebrew God revealed to him), & the Torah/Law. Moses claimed that Canaan was a "promised land," and that God had commissioned him to found a holy nation. Inspired by his words, the Hebrews set out for Canaan. According to the Bible, Moses and his followers, wandered in the desert for 40 years. Moses died before the Hebrews entered the "promised land." The Exodus and the Law are integral today to the self-understanding not only of the Jews, but of the Christian and the Moslem worlds. These centrally important traditions to the Jewish people, have reached across time and space as a central contribution to the Western heritage
First Commonwealth (1200?-586 BCE)
A new generation of Hebrews entered Canaan - the southern section of the western end of the Fertile crescent. About 1230, Joshua led the Israelites - the 12 tribes of Israel (one tribe descending from each of Jacob's twelve sons) into the promised land, then inhabited by the Canaanites in the northern Jordan Valley, while the Philistines lived along the narrow southern coastal strip called Palestine, the land of the Philistines. There was a struggle of more than 100 years. The Hebrews first conquered Canaan, and some settle in the Jordan Valley. After capturing Jericho, the Israelites conquered the rest of Canaan. Challenges repelled, and the Philistines suffered a defeat at the hands of Samson (Delilah).
The Israelites. Monarchy
The Hebrew tribes united under 3 kings: Saul, David, & Solomon (ca. 1000-900 b.c.e.):
The Israelites convinced their prophet Samuel, to anoint a king. Saul, member of Benjamins tribe, who won victories over the Ammonites and the Philistines, was the 1st king (1020-1000 bce). However, instead of passing leadership of the nation onto Saul's son, Jonathan, Samuel secretly anointed David, a member of the tribe of Judah, as Israel's second king.
David had won renown as the warrior who had slain the giant Goliath. David was the eventual victor of a power struggle, which eventually made him king over all of Israel. He captured Jerusalem and made it a capital and a religious center.
David and Batshevas son, King Solomon (961-922 B.C.E.) was noted for lavish building projects, including a great Temple (the First) in Jerusalem, center of religious & social life. There was discontent among the tribes who settled in the north, concerning heavy taxation. At the end of Solomons reign in about 930 BCE, the ten northern tribes broke away and established their own kingdom of Israel, with its capital at Samaria; the northerners called themselves Israelites. In the southern part around the Dead Sea, which became the kingdom of Judah (Yehudah, Judea, named after one of the sons of Jacob) with Jerusalem as its capital, the tribes of Judah and Benjamin remained loyal to King Rehoboam, from the family of David, Solomon's successor; the southerners called themselves Judeans (Landau wrote: they became known as Jews, Latin Judaei, when the kingdom of Judah was established in 922 bce). The 2 kingdoms were invaded from the east.
Destruction of the First Temple & Exile (586)
About 722 B.C.E., the Assyrians conquered Samaria and Israel. The fate of the Jews of Samaria is unknown, and they are referred to as the "Ten Lost Tribes of Israel." Judah was the only Israelite kingdom. Only the Judeans, therefore, played a part in later history. The word Jew comes from Judean (Greeks called the people Ioudaioi, from which comes the name Jews). In 586, the Chaldeans led by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia, captured Judah and Jerusalem, and destroyed Solomons temple (destruction of the First Temple commemorated by the Fast of Tishah be-Av, the ninth of the Jewish month of Av); they deported the southern Hebrew captives to Babylon, in the so-called Babylonian captivity. The Israelites were dispersed & exiled.
*Diaspora dispersion Except for Israel concept includes countries of world that made up the Jewish home
*polytheism belief in many gods ancient Egyptians Greeks
Second Commonwealth/Temple (586 b.c.e.-70 c.e.). Ancient/Classical anti-Judaism
Although the term "antisemitism" is thus relatively modern, documented prejudice, social and economic isolation, persecution and violence against the Jews predates Marr and his supporters by more than 2,300 years. In what is acknowledged to be the first historical reference to an anti-Judaism act, the Biblical account of the Purim story (the Book of Esther) recounts how the Jewish people narrowly escaped destruction in Persia in the 5th century B.C.E. All Jews in the kingdom were targeted for annihilation because one Jewish official refused to bow to the top aide of the king. Only as a result of the intervention of the queen, Esther, a Jew, who pleaded for saving her people, were the Jews saved from mass murder.
Classical anti-Judaism in the pre-Christian world followed along the same lines as the Purim story. For most of recorded history, the Jewish people had been the subjects of conquerors, such as the Persians, Greeks, Babylonians, Assyrians, and Romans. Most Jews refused to convert to the religion of their hosts and instead maintained their own religion, rituals and customs, often at great personal sacrifice.
The Jewish religion forbids Jews to bow down to any person or god other than the Creator. In the story of Purim, the failure of Mordecai, the Jewish, Persian official, to bow down to Haman, the top aide to the king, created conflict. The observance of the Jewish religion in the context of local customs and religion of the surrounding majority population, was the basis for much of the anti-Judaism and the antisemitism the Jewish people endured.
Babylonian Captivity. Diaspora
In exile, dispersed, the Israelites (a native or inhabitant of the ancient Northern Kingdom of Israel) participated in the economic and social life of their new land, and maintained Jewish life. The remnant of Judah in Babylonian captivity persevere in its religious distinctive loyalty. The Babylonian Captivity was one of the most creative periods in Jewish history. During the exile, the ordinary rituals of Judaism became regularized and widespread. In the absence of king or temple priests, sages and scribes became the leaders of the Jewish community. The exiles put together the Torah like its current form. Synagogues (gathering in Greek), modest centers of prayer and study that have been the focus of Jewish worship ever since, may have first emerged in Babylon.
The exiled Judeans survived as an unassimilated people outside of Judah (as Jews: strictly speaking, Jew and Jewish are anachronistic before the 5th century BCE?). Jewish communities -a Jewish Diaspora- flourished in Egypt, Babylonia, and Persia. From the 6th cent. b.c.e. on, a majority of Jews lived outside Palestine, and the Jewish Diaspora (dispersion) became a permanent part of Western history.
The Second Temple, 516
Persian Cyrus 538-333 BCE, Hellenistic Ptolemaic Seleucid overlordship 332-142 BCE.
538 bce: Persian King Cyrus conquered Babylon & the Chaldeans; permitted all conquered peoples to return to their homelands. About 50,000 Jews returned to Judah, and were allowed to rebuilt the temple in Jerusalem -in 516, dedication of the Second Temple; they began the Second Commonwealth. Restoring the Jewish community in Judea (the Persian province corresponding to the former kingdom of Judah) did not prove easy.
The Persian Jewish governor Nehemiah who arrived in Judea in 445 BCE built a new city wall for Jerusalem. Under Persian and later Hellenistic rule, Judea became an autonomous province. In Babylon, Egypt, and elsewhere a Jewish Diaspora maintained & developed a Jewish civilization.4
4th & 3rd Centuries b.c.e. Hellenism
The latter part of the 4th century BCE marks a decisive turning point in the history of the Jewish state and people. From that time until the 7th century CE, the state of Judah (originally the southern territory of the biblical kingdom of Israel, referred to by scholars as Judea, and later dubbed Palestine by the Romans) came under the rule of empires whose chief sources of cultural inspiration were Greek (Hellenistic) and, later, Roman.
Alexander the Great III of Macedon (r. 336-323 BCE) began his expedition to conquer Persia in 334 BCE & the Near East. In 332, Alexander took Judea from the Persians. The Seleucid kingdom, founded by Alexanders general Seleucus (ca. 358-281) began when Seleucus took Babylon in 312 & ended in 64 BCE when Syria became a Roman province; it included Judea. Judea was governed first by the Hellenistic Ptolemies of Egypt (301-198 BCE) until 200 BCE, afterwards by the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom of Syria.
Oppression & Rebellion: The Macchabean Age - Fight for Survival (200-63 bce)
Judea, a Syrian province. Greek colonists introduced Hellenic customs to Palestine in the 2nd cent. Challenged by Greek conquest, Greek colonization, and by their own emigration to Greek islands, Jews alternately embraced Hellenism -assimilated, and engaged in resistance, both cultural and armed. The Syrians gained the upper hand in 198 BCE. King Antiochus IV Epiphanes (r. 175-163 BCE) sought to forbid the practice of Judaism in favor of Hellenism, and to impose a pagan Greek way of life. He required the erection of a statue of the Greek god Zeus, the father of the Olympian gods of Greece, in the Temple, which kindled a revolt.
Many Jews, in a climate of fervent messianic expectation and in the prophetic belief of the coming of the End of Days, preferred to suffer martyrdom rather than betray their heritage and faith. this religious belief that the martyr was sanctifying Gods name when attacked for no reason other than for being Jewish would recur throughout later Jewish history, including the period of the Holocaust.
This onslaught against Judaism prompted a revolt led by a priestly clan, the Hasmoneans. The military commander of the rebellion was Judah Maccabee, who overcame the Syrians, to win several battles. Judah Maccabee reentered the Temple, cleansed it of its desecrations, and rededicated it, in 164 BCE. (Hanukkah, the Festival of Lights commemorates this victory. Later, in 142 BCE, an independent Jewish state was reestablished.
Roman Rule (63 B.C.E. - 476 C.E.)
The Hasmoneans had failed to establish themselves as universally recognized leaders among the Jewish people. In 63 BCE, after a century of independence, the Jews in Judea (the province created out of the Jewish kingdom of Judah) fell under Romes control, after the arrival in Jerusalem of the Roman general Pompey. The year 63 BCE had effectively marked the end of Jewish political independence; this would not be restored for another 2000 years -until the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948.
The Roman Empire controlled what became known as Palestine for almost 700 years. The Romans, finding division & in-fighting among the Jewish leadership, appointed their own puppet-king, Herod, whose reign was brutal & corrupt. King Herod (37-4 B.C.E.) ruled over Judah with sanction of the Roman Senate. He was a master builder, creating magnificent temples, public works, ports and palaces. The ruins of many of his works, including the reconstructed Second Temple, may still be viewed today. The legacy of Herods murderous rule was dissension and chaos, with the Romans finally moving into the power vacuum and establishing direct rule of Judea under procurators (governors).
In the early Roman Empire, Jews has some privileges in the Roman world, but remained distinct, outsiders.
Christianity & the Jews
Roots of Christianity
Emergence of Christianity marks most important cultural revolution of the West. Religious persecutions were carried out. All major Christian denomination were united in their animosity toward Jews. For 2000 yrs, Jews stood outside the Christian world; were outcasts because
- they denied that Jesus was the messianic son of God
- Jewish devotion to faith of their ancestors construed as a challenge & insult to Christianity
Conversion of Jews was & remain an abiding missionary objective. Although the stream of modern antisemitism is fed by national & racial tributaries, religious motivation provides the strongest & deepest current.
In the first century C.E., Apion, a writer from Alexandria, wrote the "History of Egypt" which was the source for many of the false accusations about Jewish religious rituals which have plagued Jews throughout later history.
Isolated incidents of persecution against the Jews were recorded in the first century. As many as 4,000 Jews were deported to the island of Sardinia during the reign of the Roman Emperor Tiberius. The first recorded pogrom took place during the reign of the Roman Emperor Caligula in 38 C.E.
Classical Roman writers such as Cicero and Ovid wrote about the differences between Jewish observances and those of the Romans in less than flattering terms.
Pre-Christian anti-Judaism different from virulent antisemitism developed by Christendom. Unifying link of antisemitism, yesterday today forever: dislike of unlike; Jews outcasts.
Jewish Roots of Christianity
*Judea: Hebrew Yehuda Jew Judaeus inhabitant Judea Roman province.
In 6 C.E., Judah, where most Jews lived, became a Roman province. The sectarianism under the Hasmoneans, and developed further under Herod, now blossomed fully under direct Roman rule, and political anarchy swept the countryside and religious disorder the cities. Many Jews yearned for independence and a king like David. Occasionally, they would revolt. It is against this background that the emergence of new messianic movements, which were both religiously and politically motivated -including that of Jesus of Nazareth- must be understood. So too, must be the rebellion which would culminate in the Great Jewish Revolt against the Romans during the years 66-70 CE.
Jesus of Nazareth as a rebel
Christianity, religion founded by Jesus of Nazareth, born in Bethlehem c. 7 BCE, arose out of this setting.Jesus of Nazareth was a Jew. His childhood was typical of young Jewish boys of his time. He was circumcised on the eighth day after his birth, received a religious education, learned a trade, kept the law of Moses, and spoke both Hebrew and Aramaic, the languages of the Jews of his day. baptized by Essene preacher, John (the Dead Sea Scrolls found in 1947). Essenes: Jewish sect, members lived ascetic, pious lives, isolated; lived in Qumaran, Dead Sea - c. 200-135 Jewish Qumran community 1947: Bedouin Dead Sea Scrolls Old Testament.
Upon reaching the age of 30, he began to preach and teach about the kingdom of God, calling people to repentance, and ministering to the sick. Sermon on the Mount; stressed Gods love. denounced hypocrisy of leaders. Many people began to follow him.
When Jesus traveled to Jerusalem in c. 30 ce, many Jews there hailed him as the Messiah,& as King of the Jews.
*Jesus followers called him Christ clear reference to *belief Jesus anointed one
Others denied that he was the Messiah, & regarded him as a revolutionary.
Roman authority considered him an enemy of the state; last supper Seder.
Jesus was tried before Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor, and crucified on Golgotha (Calvary) Hill, around 30 ce.
*Jesus resurrection celebrated in Christian festival of Easter.
Legacy of the Crucifixion
*Legacy of crucification (by Romans), cornstone in Christian teaching: Jews blamed for 2,000 yrs killing Christ
*deicide accusation basis for Jew-hatred by Christians.
Crucifixion plays important role in history of antisemitism. Jesus arrested on night of last supper, Seder meal; Judas of Kerioth betrayed him; Sanhedrin, Jewish court indicted him turned him over to Roman procurator, Pontius Pilate. Romans used crucifixion for offenders. His death at Roman hands was later interpreted by Christian antisemites as proof that the Jews had killed the Christ - deicide. The false myth, of the Jews supposed responsibility, one of the most destructive & murderous legends in human history, has whipped up passion and aggressions against a whole people and their civilization for many centuries. ... In recent times, the Roman Catholic Church declared that the Jews of Jesus time could not be held responsible for the crucifixion. Nor could the descendants of all Jews who lived at the time of the crucifixion be held responsible. The false myth persists, however.5
The New Faith Established
Jesus inner circle of disciples, who after Jesus' death became the leaders of the first century church, were also Jews. Jesus followers, led by apostle Peter; believed that Jesus was indeed the Messiah; brotherly love; observed baptism & Lords Supper. The most revolutionary doctrine concerned their certainty that Jesus had ascended to heaven after 3 days in his tomb and that he would return once again to earth to establish his kingdom.
Transformation of Christianity to a triumphant, worldwide church, work of Saul of Tarsus, founder of the church. In 36 CE, Saul renamed Paul of Tarsus, converted; decided that the Gentiles, the pagan world should convert, and spread Christianity, between 45 CE and 65 CE. As a result of the large-scale missionary efforts of the Apostle Paul to the Gentiles, the composition of the first century church began to rapidly change from a Jewish majority to a Gentile majority. The church would be catholica, universal. Christians, followers of Messiah, splinter group in Judaism. For 3 centuries after the Crucifixion, Christians and Jews engaged in an intense rivalry.
The Jewish Revolt against Rome, & Destruction of the 2nd Temple (66-70 CE)
The revolt started in 66 CE, after the Temple authorities objected to sacrifices being offered to the Roman emperor. Emperor Vespasian sent a huge army to put down the rebellion and in 70 CE, under command of Titus the Romans sacked Jerusalem, slaughtered thousands of Jews, and destroyed the Second Temple (once again, on the 9th of Av of the Jewish calendar). Only the western wall of the Temple withstood the onslaught. (Israel Diaspora Museum Arch of Titus procession Jews rituals Roman captivity). Today, Jews consider this wall, known as the Western Wall or the Wailing Wall, a very sacred site of Judaism.
Resistance was crushed except for a company of zealots who took over a fortress at Masada, near the Dead Sea. The Roman army tried for three years to crush that resistance. When defeat of the revolt was inevitable, the defenders drew lots and killed themselves rather than surrender. Jerusalem was restored by the Romans as a pagan city. During the siege of Jerusalem in 70, Yohanan Ben Zakkai escaped from the city to Yavneh, and was allowed by the Romans to transform it into a center of Jewish religious and intellectual activity. Rabbis -scholars learned in the scriptures and religious law, replaced priests as religious leaders of Judaism.
A Second Rebellion, 132-135 c.e.
Demoralized after the loss of Jewish national and religious life, hope in a Messiah to save the people from the oppression of Rome began to grow.
In 132-135 C.E., a 2nd ... rebellion happened after the Romans erected a temple to Jupiter on the site of the Jewish temple in Jerusalem, which they renamed Aelia Capitolina.6 This Jewish rebellion led by Simon Bar Kokhba was also sparked off, and inspired by messianic hopes of deliverance. Simon Bar Kochba ("Son of the Star'), previously known as Simon Ben Cosiba, was endorsed by the leading Jewish intellectual of the time, Rabbi Akiba, to be the promised Messiah. Many people were skeptical, but the rabbis followed Akiba's precedent and hailed him as the Messiah. The Romans put down this revolt; Jews of Judea were killed, enslaved or forced to flee. Then, the Romans banned all Jews from Jerusalem. Elsewhere ... especially in the Galilee, a large Jewish population, ... continued to exist until the 7th century, when Palestine was conquered by the Arabs.7 Roman antisemitism was not racially based, nor was it genocidal.
The Jews after the Second Temple. Diaspora (70 CE-
The destruction of the Second Temple in 70 ce by the Romans, marked a major turning point in Jewish history -the end of an era. It contributed to the growth of rabbinic Judaism, and the Diaspora (dispersal). After the destruction of the 2nd Temple, most of the inhabitants of Judea were dispersed to various parts of the Roman Empire. They scattered in large numbers to such centers as Egypt, Babylonia, Syria, the Greek islands and Rome; the Jewish scholars in Babylon also developed a Talmud, which eventually supplanted the Palestinian version as the ultimate authority in Jewish legal matters. Jews also settled in new communities in Italy, Spain, France (Gaul), Poland, Germany and later in Britain too (within the expanding Roman world). Jews were regarded, and often regarded themselves, as members of a nation scattered throughout different lands since the destruction of their state in the 1st century.
After the collapse of their independent homeland and Temple-centered religion in 70, the rabbis in Yavneh/Galilee and elsewhere replaced Temple sacrifice with prayers and study. Judaism became a Diaspora religion. Jewish scholars met in Yavneh, and during the end of the second century and beginning of the third established an oral Jewish law to complement the Torah. This oral law was written down at the end of the second century C.E. by Rabbi Judah HaNasi, and is known as the Mishnah.
The major center of learning and scholarship passed from Galilee to Babylonia, where there had been a large Jewish settlement since the 1st exile of the 6th century BCE. Intensive study of the Mishnah/its discussion by later scholars in Palestine (as Judea had now been called by the Romans) and Babylonia was also put to writing, and led to the compilation of a vast array of critical commentaries called Gemara (completion). The Mishnah and Gemara were joined together to form the Talmud (study). The Babylonian Talmud, completed in the 5th century, supplanted the Palestinian version as the ultimate authority in Jewish legal matters. As a consequence of this Diaspora/scattering, the major thrust of Jewish history in the Diaspora has been the interaction -and the changing relationship- between Jew and non-Jew.
Theological roots of antisemitism. Construction of Jewish Difference in Ancient History
Role of New Testament in demonization of Jews
Contributions of Church rhetoric to Nazi atmosphere
How did Jews come to have an evil image? Why were the Jews persecuted?
Contribution Church rhetoric to Nazi atmosphere
Continuity thesis: Is there an eternal antisemitism?
Bauer: Core Holo. decision murder every single Jew man woman child. Nazism, drawing upon earlier antisemitic traditions, & welding them together with more modern trends such as fascism & racism, developed a total view that served to raise mass murder to the highest of ideological imperatives. ...
... the depth, persistence and irrationality of antisemitism cannot be understood in isolation of its religious roots. The Holocaust would be inexplicable without reference to Christendoms role in the promulgation of the negative stereotype of the Jews and the demonization of the Jews which derives from the New Testament and was elaborated by the Church Fathers and later Christian tradition. Hitlers antisemitism must be seen as an extension of Christendoms negative evaluation of the Jews. ... Hitler could appropriate Christendoms anti-Jewish stereotypes ... .
Origins of Christian antisemitism as precondition for H.
a. Christian antisemitism -Theological roots of antisemitism. Legacy Christian anti-Judaism:
b. Medieval conception of the Jews & its relation to modern antisemitism
c. Role New Testament in demonization Jews
d. Subsequent development of the anti-Jewish stereotype in Church: the Patristic Adversos Judaeos tradition. Luther
Emergence of Christianity marks most important cultural revolution of the West. Religious persecutions were carried out. All major Christian denomination were united in their animosity toward Jews. (Over the years ... Christian ... thinkers began to show hostility toward Judaism and Jews that had tragic consequences in later centuries.
As the only religious minority allowed to exist, Jews had been discriminated, marked out with special signs or clothing, expelled, massacred, or forced to live in ghetto) For 2000 yrs, Jews stood outside the Christian world; were outcasts because religious antagonism.
Several factors fueled this anti-Judaism:
- resentment against Jews for their refusal to embrace Jesus - they denied that Jesus was the messianic son of God; Jesus for Jews not true Messiah
- ... the role in Jesus death ascribed to Jews by the New Testament;
- ... and anger that Judaism remained a vital religion, for this undermined the conviction that Christianity was the fulfillment of Judaism and the one true faith - Jewish devotion to faith of their ancestors construed as a challenge & insult to Christianity.
Early Christian Church's relationship with Judaism. Early Christian Anti-Judaism
Conceptual framework. Ideological & emotional dimensions of Christian identity formation in the separation from Judaism & their contribution to medieval demonization of Jews; identity, difference & the other; picture of pre-modern antisemitism
In the Early Roman Empire, Church spread; from persecuted martyrs.
Influential Christians write about Jews
In the 2nd century, theologians and Church Fathers became more concerned with "making the break" with Jews and Judaism. They began to take an uncompromising posture of theological and political opposition. Blanket policies condemning Jews began to color New Testament interpretation.
In the second century and beyond, many of the principal Fathers of the Church began to write of Jews as a "rejected people" who were doomed to a life of marginality and misery. Jews were to wander the world as a "despised people." This image persisted in Christian preaching, art and popular teaching for centuries to come.8
Early Fathers Church teachings:
the promises of blessing to Israel in the Hebrew scriptures are now the exclusive property of the Church (Parkes, p. 98);
*God has cursed and rejected Israel, and now the Church is the "true" or "new" Israel; and
* the Jews killed Jesus; all Jews everywhere forever are responsible for his death. This was the most significant development of this period.
Within the writings of the church fathers (called "patristic" writings) were 3 main types which proved to be damaging to Jewish-Christian relations not only at the time they were composed (and sometimes read aloud to Christian congregations) but also in centuries following, as they were often used as a justification for anti-Jewish sentiment and, in the case of John Chrysostom's virulent anti-Jewish sermons, even anti-Jewish legislation (Parkes, p. 71):
* Dialogue - Served to propagate Christian teaching. One in mid-2nd century) & most important sources is the Dialogue of the church father Justin Martyr with Trypho the Jew; there, Trypho is portrayed as being very impressed by Justin Martyr's arguments & nearly coming to accept them.
* Testimony - Collections of Old Testament texts, which purpose was to prove different claims connected with the person of Christ and the call of the Gentiles. Served as a "handy compendium of arguments for possible controversies" with Jews (Parkes, p. 99). An example is that of the 3rd century African church father, Cyprian, The Testimonies against the Jews.
General latent & potent antisemitism developed in the Roman world from the 3rd century.
Legend: 306 Roman Emperor Constantine had vision before battle; saw cross in sky; defeated enemy; Const. converted.
4th c., Christianity official religion in Roman Empire; developed idea that with its rise it had become a New Israel; denial of legitimacy of Judaism. Jews could not exist as a separate entity. Jews in Diaspora=minority
Decrees by the Early Catholic Church:
the "shadow" on the cross of Christianity. It does not make forpleasant reading. But it is a legacy that must be confronted with honesty and remorse. Knowledge of this history of antisemitism within the Christian churches is indispensable for any full understanding of the Holocaust.9
Various church councils drew up damaging anti-Jewish legislation such as:
* Synod of Elvira (306)--prohibited intermarriage and sexual intercourse between Christians and Jews, and prohibited them from eating together.
313 Edict of Mila outlawed synagogues
315 edict allowed burning Jews if convicted of breaking law
- the forbidding of the reading of the Torah exclusively in Hebrew (553 C.E.) (see Parkes, 251ff, 392).
* sermons or homilies -- A group of writings which was "especially directed against the Jews" (Parkes, 71). They served to warn Christians of the dangers of associating with the Jewish people and were developed as an absolute condemnation of the Jewish people, religion, and cultural practices. Example: Church Father John Chrysostom -- Adversus Judaeos, eight sermons preached at Antioch in 386-388 (Parkes, 119); he in particular pushed the idea of Jewish sensuality, gluttony, stubbornness and rejection by God.
Writings by church fathers (and church leaders throughout church history) condemned Jews, accusing them of being idolaters, torturers, spiritually deaf, blasphemers, gluttons, adulterers, cannibals, Christ-killers, and beyond God's forgiveness. Church Father John Chrysostom in particular pushed the idea of Jewish sensuality, gluttony, stubbornness and rejection by God.
In the late 4th c., St John Chrysostom 344-407, called Jews the most miserable of men, inveterate murderers, destroyers, men possessed by the Devil. ... their rituals are criminal and impure, their religion is a disease; ... Jews sacrifice to Satan synagogue brothel temple of demons assassins of Christ
Since the Devil was very real to early and medieval Christians, the Jews became identified with evil. ... The diabolization of the Jew - which bore no relationship to the actual behavior of Jews or to their highly ethical religion - & the theology of victimization - which held that the Jews were collectively & eternally cursed for denying Christ - became powerful myths which, over the centuries, poisoned Christians hearts and minds against Jews, spurring innumerable humiliations, persecutions, and massacres.
Alongside this hatred of Jews and antipathy to their suffering, there also evolved the belief that the Jews, faithless and perfidious though they were, should be permitted to survive, for one day they would see the light and convert to the true faith.10
With the establishment of Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire in the fourth century, however, Christianity soon began to enjoy a position of superiority over Judaism which caused serious consequences for Judaism ((in 337, Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity). After Constantine, official teaching of contempt. Jews should not be killed but humiliated & persecuted, because they are supposedly condemned by God to be dispersed & in their dispersion are to prove the glory of God.11
Teaching of contempt-->discrimination, accusations, persecution, degradation
The new Christian Empire quickly translated its anti-Jewish prejudice into anti-Jewish legislation. In 392, Theodosius the Great forbade the practice of all religions except the form of Christianity recognized by the government. Jewish legal rights were restricted.
The new "Christian" empire began to enact such changes as:
* The removal of former religious and governing privileges
* The curtailment of Rabbinical jurisdiction
* Prohibition of missionary work
* Jews were no longer allowed to hold high offices, have military careers (e.g. legislation in 537 C.E. which prohibited local Jewish people from serving on municipal bodies).
=Jewish legal rights restricted, discriminatory laws
Various church councils drew up damaging anti-Jewish legislation such as:
* banned contact with Jews
* forbidding reading of the Torah exclusively in Hebrew (553 ce) (see Parkes, 251ff, 392)
* confiscation of Jewish property & the prohibition of the sale of Christian property to Jews (545)
Leadership of Roman bishop: pope elaborate theology, dogma, liturgy, & body of law; wealthy. With the rise of the Church-State, certain religio-political attitudes such as Jesus ruling the world through the Roman Christian government became evident in the Church. This attitude of superiority, flamed by the ever-increasing integration of the Church into Roman government, continued on into the Middle Ages and was translated into repeated actual restrictions on Jews, as is evidenced by the above examples.
Jews in Latin Christendom - Hostility Towards Jews in Medieval Period
What was antisemitism Like in the Middle Ages?
The western half of the Roman Empire lost its strength and was overrun by invaders in the 400s. 476: overthrow of the last Roman emperor in the west; beginning of Medieval Times.
The Middle Ages (500-1500). Judaism. Christianity, and Islam
500-1350 Middle Ages: Islam Latin Christendom, feudalism manorialism Age of faith->creation religious consensus conformity-> Christendoms role promulgating negative stereotype of the Jews & their demonization - Legacy of religious/Christian antisemitism
*Middle Ages: era after collapse west Roman Empire 500-1500. Jews entered Europe shattered by Germanic invasions collapse Roman Empire
*Islam: 7th c. new religion prophet Muhammad Palestine Arab Jews flourished in Spain NA Maimonides
7th c. Palestine conquered by Arabs. Jews maintained relig & cult despite loss national identity for 2000 yrs till 1948
*renaissance 12th c: Muslim scientific discoveries to west receptiveness to works of Jewish scholars great influx of Aristotles writings
The Muslim Empire. Spain
In 622 Mohammed founded Islam; conquest of former Roman Empire, the Arabian Peninsula; no forced conversion. In the 7th century, Palestine was conquered by the Muslim Arabs. Many Jews served in the Arab armies which conquered the Iberian peninsula, and settled in Spain. By the end of the 10th century, the Babylonian center declined, & new centers of Jewish scholarship were established in the Diaspora, principally in North Africa and Muslim Spain. Generally, speaking, the Jews under Islamic rule, would enjoy a far greater degree of toleration than did those living under Christian domination.
For centuries, Jewish culture flourished in Spain and North Africa, and recorded achievements in science, medicine, music, and philosophy. The work of Jewish translators, doctors, and philosophers contributed substantially to the flowering of medieval culture in the High Middle Ages. The foremost Jewish scholar of the Middle Ages was Moses ben Maimon (1135-1204), also called by the Greek name Maimonides, who was born in Cordova, Spain, then under Muslim rule. ... Maimonides achieved fame as a philosopher, theologian, mathematician, and physician; he was recognized as the leading Jewish sage of his day, and his writings were respected by Christian and Muslim thinkers as well.12 (Ibn Gvirol, Judah Halevi, Kabbalah - Jewish mysticism) - what became known as the Golden Age of Jewish culture in literature, science, philosophy, under Islamic tolerance.
Medieval Christian Antisemitism in Latin Christendom - Jews as outsiders
Jews had settled in the western part of the Roman Empire, before the rise of Christianity. Because the Byzantine and Islamic worlds vacillated between persecution & toleration, many Jews again, migrated to western Europe. Most Jews settled in cities, where they could live and worship in community with their correligionists. During the 10th cent. many Italian Jews settled in Cologne, Mainz, Worms - towns of the German Rhineland. By the 11th century, they had produced a distinctive Jewish culture in Northern France and on the eastern banks of the Rhine (Rashi).
During the Middle Ages, & in the period following the Middle Ages, Jews were isolated both physically & socially from the fabric of life. After Christianity became the official religion of the Empire, in the 4th century, and after the birth and spread of Islam in the 7th century, Jews found themselves living as a social, cultural and religious minority among majorities. Despite their precarious position, medieval Jews maintained their faith, expanded their tradition of biblical and legal scholarship, and developed a flourishing Hebrew literature.13
Hostility towards Jews in Medieval period & their justification
Conversion. Stereotypes, Scapegoats, Pogroms, Expulsion, Ghetto
*Christian Church leading institution medieval society stability religious conformity.
Medieval social order rigidly fixed. Jews did not fit in nobility, serfs, clergy & middle class.
Christian Rulers & Church/, and the Jews - Prohibitions & Proscriptions
During the Age of Faith, church suzerain over mans life; religious conformity. Medieval church offered solace, stability; power of excommunication; religious persecution of heresies, to root out doctrine opposition seen as destructive; dilemma of Jews living in the Christian world. Jews, who clanged to error of their ways, condemned to live in degradation; their misery exploited as a sign of Gods punishment for their rejection of Christ.
Jews could be saved if they converted. Still, Christianity would adopt a progressively more antagonistic attitude towards its parent religion, than Islam. For Judaism had rejected Jesus as the Messiah, and hence was irreconcilably at odds with the fundamental tenets of Christian belief and theology. As a powerful expression of this hostility, Jews would increasingly come to be identified in the medieval mind as the killers of Christ and even as agents of the Devil.
During Age of Faith religious conformity. Latin Christendoms growing self-consciousness, which found expression in hostility to Muslims and condemnation of heresy, also roused a hatred of Jews -a visibly alien group in a society dominated by the Christian world-view. ...
Certainty that Jews were an abomination was translated into decrees to prevent contact between Christian majority & infection by Jewish minority -orders/regulations to disconnect Jews from Gentiles:
- The Justinian Code. It was an edict of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian (527-564). A section of the code negated civil rights for Jews. Once the code was enforced, Jews in the Empire could not
build synagogues, read the Bible in Hebrew,
gather in public places, celebrate Passover before Easter, or
give evidence in a judicial case in which a Christian was a party.
- 533 Council of Orleans also prohibited mixed marriages;
forbid Christian from converting to Judaism
- 545: confiscation of Jewish property & prohibition of sale of Christian property to Jews
Active Antisemitism - Decrees by the Catholic Church (partial list):
Bauer: Many of church fathers & some of the great figures of Christianity in the early & later Middle Ages held extreme anti-Jewish views.14
* Councils of Orleans (533-541) - prohibited marriages between Christians and Jews and forbade the conversion to Judaism by Christians.
Some laymen and many members of the clergy were very hostile to the Jews, but from Gregory I (r. 590-604), the papacy urged peaceful coexistence and prayers for Jewish conversion.
* Trulanic Synod (692) - prohibited Christians from being treated by Jewish doctors.
* Synod of Narbonne (1050) - prohibited Christians from living in Jewish homes.
* Synod of Gerona (1078)_required Jews to pay taxes to support the Church.
* Third Lateran Council (1179) - prohibited certain medical care to be provided by Christians to Jews.
*-4th Lateran Council 1215 required Jews to wear special clothing/ Star of David yellow badge to distinguish them from Christians.
- Council of Basel 1431-1443 forbade Jews to attend universities, from acting as agents in the conclusion of contracts between Christians, and required that they attend church sermons.
Jews discriminated & punished because refusal to accept Christ as messiah.
What made Christian anti-Judaism particularly ominous was the effort of some theologians to demonize the Jewish people. The myth emerged that the Jews murderers of the incarnate God who embodied all that was good, were a cursed nation, children of the Devil, whose suffering was intended by God.
*Christians believed Jews cursed -accursed race, because didnt accept Jesus Messiah & refusal to accept Christianity-->God rejected them make them suffer. Their sufferings & inferior position in society -in reality result of Christian persecution- explained as Gods punishment for their rejection of Christ etc.
Negative theological attitudes began to abound, such as the idea that Jews had lost their right to exist; God rejected Jews; Jews only exist as a testimony to the truth of Christianity; Jews are suffering justly at the hands of the Gentiles because God is angry with them, etc.
Jews enemies of God Jews should not be killed but humiliated & persecuted, because they are supposedly condemned by God to be dispersed & in their dispersion are to prove the glory of God15 = Teaching of contempt. Jews saved if they convert.
Notorious accusations: Jews were infidels Satans allies & assistants
Still, Christianity would adopt a progressively more antagonistic attitude towards its parent religion ... For Judaism had rejected Jesus as the Messiah, and hence was irreconcilably at odds with the fundamental tenets of Christian belief and theology. As a powerful expression of this hostility, Jews would increasingly come to be identified in the medieval mind as the killers of Christ/Christ killers and even as agents of the Devil.
Church burdened them with deicide & Easter week was a period of particularly brutal Jew baiting. Although some medieval popes and bishops condemned these fables, the lower clergy and popular preachers spread the tales to the masses.
Christians blamed Hebrew for crucifixion, all generations condemned to share guilt.
*Jews killed Jesus; all Jews everywhere forever are responsible for his death.
*Deicide accusation. killing of God Jews killed Christ/Jesus; death by Romans interpreted by Christians; legacy crucifixion: religious Jew hatred based false myth
*Jews viewed as Satan evil/devil image not human & responsible for crucification - Jews=Christ killers -->demonization.
- the accusation by Church leaders that Jews were responsible for the crucifixion of Jesus, and were therefore the incarnation of evil. The charge of deicide would become a cornerstone of Christian teaching and a foundation of anti-Jewish thought and action for centuries.
Church propaganda had great effect development anti-Jewish stereotypes.
The cumulative effects of so strong a negative stereotype would have implications for the success, many centuries later, of Nazi anti-Jewish propaganda.
*Ancient Times & in Middle Ages: Hateful attitudes toward Judaism as a religion -failing convert them-> religious antipathy Jew-hatred=Christian antisemitism.
Several factors contributed to anti-Jewish feelings during the Middle Ages
- To medieval Christians, the refusal of the Jews to embrace Christianity was an act of wickedness, particularly since the church taught that the coming of Christ had been prophesied by the Old Testament. Related to this prejudice was the portrayal of the crucifixion in the Gospels.
- Portrayal of crucifixion in Gospels; crime deicide eternally stained Jews as a people.
In the minds of medieval Christians, the crime of deicide -the killing of God- eternally stained the Jews as a people.
Hostility toward Jews in Age of faith, religious enthusiasm-->Isolated, subservient Jews ...
- Commerce restricted. Jews were prohibited from joining guilds, practice medicine or law, own land, hold public office, leave their homes during Easter week,
- forced to wear distinctive badges -usually a yellow sign, or hats.
These rules gradually became part of urban law. The Jews were despised, segregated, degraded & fearful. hostility led to sporadic pogroms throughout Europe. Isolation, false accusations, expulsion & murder were mechanisms employed to eradicate Judaism.
11th Crusades, pogroms
The 10th & 11th centuries was a rapidly changing world.
In the 11th c. attacks on Jews increased, in context of the 1st crusade, 1096, launched by the Church. Religious fervor aroused 1000s of Christians; purpose: to liberate the Holy Land of Palestine from Moslem infidels Turks; expectations of material benefits -wealth, land, trade, freedom from serfdom; God wills it.
Along the way to Palestine, crusaders massacred infidels refusing to be baptized to Christianity. First Crusade brought the 1st great massacre of Jews: savage attacks on Jews of Germany and induced many Jews to move to northern France & England. (West. Civ, Noble ..., Houghton, Mifflin:1994, p. 360). 1st great massacre; Mayence slaughter of 1300 Jews. 1099 Jerusalem captured by crusaders who herded Jews into synagogue burned them & sang Christ we adore thee. There were a series of nine crusades, holy wars, from 1096-1292 - 200 yrs. After crusades, hatred for Jews persisted. Term accursed race became interchangeable with Jew.
From 11th c. to 18th c. Jewish history in Christian lands: violence wandering.
During the 11th century commercial revolution, there was economic resurgence in Europe, the growth of towns, finance, & credit. When the Church outlawed usury, the lending of money, as sinful, Jews were permitted to be moneylenders and act as financiers, to merchants, peasants, and kings alike. Because Jews enjoyed a monopoly over an activity viewed as sinful, a Jewish stereotype was perpetuated. Prosperity and participation of Jews in money lending led to feelings of competition, resentment, and hostility on the part of the Christian population. Jews already regarded as infidels and Christ killers, now were stigmatized as usurers and bribers.
- * The role of Jews as moneylenders also contributed to animosity toward them. As Jews were increasingly excluded from international trade and most professions and were barred from the guilds, and in some areas from landholding, virtually the only means of livelihood open to them was moneylending. This activity, which was in theory forbidden to Christians, aroused the hatred of individual peasants, clergy, lords, and kings who did the borrowing.
- *12th c. The Blood Libel - despite the fact that popes condemned the charge as groundless.
One of the most popular legend spread in Christendom was that of the blood libel. In 1144, a myth began in Norwich, England: Jews were falsely accused of ritual murder of Christian children.
The flames of hatred were fanned by the absurd allegation that Jews, made bloodthirsty by the spilling of Christs blood, tortured & murdered Christian, particularly children, to obtain blood for ritual purposes. This myth spread to the continent, and was expanded to become an accusation which persisted for centuries that the Jews used the blood of Christian children for mysterious ritual purposes - in the preparation of their Passover unleavened bread (matzohs). This blood libel was widely believed by the credulous masses and incited numerous riots, which led to the murder, torture, & expulsion of countless Jews, despite the fact that popes condemned the charge as groundless.
This medieval legend, known as the blood libel, was the most enduring and rooted in the popular consciousness. The Blood Libel proved the diabolic character of Judaism. Jews were also accused of mutilating consecrated wafers and thereby torturing the body of Christ.
The Nazis would later make use of the blood libel in their anti-Jewish propaganda, both in its original and in an adapted form: the medieval stereotype of the Jew as literal bloodsucker would give way to that of the Jew as bloodsucking capitalist. Last known blood libel leveled against Jews as late as 1946 in Kilce, Poland.
*Jewish Question Because Jews refused to change ways, non-Jews wondered What should we do about this Jewish minority among us?
13th c. Late Middle Ages
Active Antisemitism - Decrees by the Catholic Church (partial list):
* Fourth Lateran Council (1215) - required Jews to wear special clothing to distinguish them from Christians.
* Council of Basel (1431-1443) - forbade Jews to attend universities, them from acting as agents in the conclusion of contracts between Christians, and required that they attend church sermons.
The 4th Lateran Council in 1215, had also mandated that Jews wear special signs, Star of David, on their clothing to indicate their religion, not intermarry with Christians. These rules gradually became part of urban law.
In 1215, the 4th Lateran Council emphasized transubstantiation (the miraculous conversion of the bread and wine to the body and blood of Christ) and the requirement that the laity take Holy Communion (Eucharist: 1.a. A sacrament and the central act of worship in many Christian churches, which was instituted at the Last Supper and in which bread and wine are consecrated and consumed in remembrance of Jesus's death; Communion. b. The consecrated elements of this rite; Communion - the American Heritage Dictionary) at least once a year. To aid the laity in understanding the importance of the Eucharist, a special day was set aside, Corpus Christi Day, on which the communion wafer, in a special box, was carried by priest in religious procession. The procession won lay devotion, and popular religious plays were performed on Corpus Christi Day.
Many of the Corpus Christi plays represented Jews dishonoring the Communion wafer by boiling it or nailing it to a piece of wood and being subsequently converted. Thus an unintended result of the emphasis on the Eucharist was increased Jew-hatred in 13th c.
13th c. - Expulsions
The hostility led to sporadic pogroms throughout Europe. The increased suspicion and hatred, in the medieval sociopolitical context of the crusades and blood libel, explains why Edward I and Philip IV were able to expel the Jews without public condemnation (The Western Experience, v. 1, Rabb, ..., 1999, McGraw-Hill College, pp. 344-45). At one time or another, all Jews were expelled from England (1290), France (1306, 1332, and finally in 1394), Austria (1420), many German principalities, & Spain (1492). Some expulsion policies were reversed. Between 1290 and 1293, expulsions, massacres, and forced conversions led to the virtual disappearance of a centuries-old- Jewish community life in southern Italy. In Germany, savage riots periodically led to the torture and murder of Jews.16
Jews could be saved if they converted.
*To escape Christian persecution Jew-hatred in ancient times & MA Jews alternative, to stay alive *be baptized Jews refused conversion -->
13th c. - The Inquisition
The Inquisition was a tribunal established in the Middle Ages (13th Cent.) by the Catholic Church in Rome designed to suppress heresy. In 1233, Pope Gregory IX formally established the papal Inquisition and sent Dominican friars to South France and Northern Italy to conduct inquests. The Dominican order had set as one of their goals the conversion of Jews to Christianity. This aim, backed by the power of the Inquisition, brought on a wave of persecution.
Torture was not an approved method of extracting confessions of guilt from heretics, yet it was practiced and finally approved by Pope Innocent IV. The goal of the Inquisition was not the destruction of the heretics but rather their repentance. Burning at the stake was not common. The ordinary penalties were penance, fines and imprisonment. Penalties were often carried out by the local government, especially the death penalty. Because the fines extracted and the property of the accused were turned over to the local government which often returned a portion to the Church, graft, bribery and blackmail were common.
The church rulers were often satisfied with assurances of goodwill. The secular rulers, however, used the persecution of heresy as a weapon to further their own designs.
Mid-14th Century - The Black Death (1348-51; 1363)
In the Middle Ages, Jews were accused of all kinds of slanders and were scapegoats for the problems of the day; as devils & witches, guilty of every ill besetting mankind.
The bubonic plague, the cause of the Black Death that liquidated a quarter of the population of Europe in the 14th century, was blamed on the Jews, who allegedly, were the emissaries of Satan & had poisoned the wells of Europe -->hatred. The Pope issued a bull declaring that Jews were not responsible for the plague, but not before many Jews were burned alive or hanged by enraged mobs.
The religious mentality of late medieval Europe was reflected in response to plague in parts of France, Germany, & central Europe: In 1348, arrival of a deadly pestilence, bubonic plague spread in western Europe.
*mid-14th c. reactions to tragedy Black Death generated religious fanatism->extremes of both immorality & austere religious life; attempts to lessen Gods wrath by ascetism & physical beatings.
A movement of penitents called flagellants arose in Hungary and spread quickly into Germany and across France and the Low Countries. They urged repentance and beat themselves. The Flagellants, in their quest for a purer, truly Christian society, brought suspicion on all those who were not Christian. In the wake of the flagellants, there were murderous attacks on outsiders, especially lepers and Jew, who were suspected of spreading the contagion in an attempt to bring down Latin Christendom=attacks against Jews -burned alive hanged by enraged mobs. Stories of Jewish poisoners seemed to arise in the south of France & spread in their most virulent forms to German towns along the Rhine. In many Rhineland towns, the entire Jewish population was killed -in 1349, massive pogroms against Jewish communities.
Video: Black Death Jews blamed for plague
Summary - Notorious accusations: Jews were infidels
- required Christian blood to prepare their Passover Matzos; mysterious death or disappearance of a Gentile child served as proof of a ritual murder.
- desecrated the host (wafer used during mass) by piercing it with sharp instruments, in that way reenacting the killing of Jesus.
- were Satans allies & assistants
- poisoned wells
- caused Black Death epidemic, 1347-50, which killed 1/4 of European population
God hated the Jews as was evident by their miserable state.
In the 14th century, economic changes also unleashed across Europe a wave of violence and popular revolts. A series of revolt in Spain, had long-lasting and unfortunate effects on Iberian society. In 1391, an attack on the Jews of Seville led to murders, forced conversions, and suppression of synagogues. Violence spread in Spain. Many converted. Although the anti-Jewish feelings were expressed in religious terms, the underlying cause was anger over the economic prominence of some Jewish or converso (recently converted Jewish-Christians) families. After 1391, anti-Jewish feeling increasingly became racial. The converso remained a Jew. Antagonism against Jews & conversos continued to build until the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492 (Western Civilization, Noble, Strauss, 1994, Houghton, Mifflin, 466)
15th c - Expulsion from Spain, 1492
*Spain: Jews victims of widespread persecution. 1391, attack on Jews Seville led to murders, forced conversions, and suppression of synagogues. Violence spread. Many converted.
For centuries, the Jewish community in Muslim Spain had flourished and grown in numbers and influence. In the 11th c.: Christian reconquest of Spain led to persecution of the Jews by the Church and repeated efforts to convert them. Converts from Judaism were called Marranos (Jews who had been baptized under duress, but were believed to be still surreptitiously practicing Judaism).
*Marranos: Pigs Converts from Judaism -Jews who had been baptized under duress, but were believed to be still surreptitiously practicing Judaism; new Christians
After the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella (1469), the Marranos were denounced as a danger to the existence of Christian Spain.
In 1478, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella established the Spanish Inquisition. The purpose of the Spanish Inquisition was to discover and punish converted Jews (and later Muslims) who were insincere. However, all Spaniards began to fear its prying eyes. Suspected Marranos were tortured until they confessed to practicing Judaism, and then were burned to death en masse at an auto-da-fe. The death penalty was used more often than in the Roman Inquisition, and rules that condemned one for heresy were far stricter, often outlawing things the Roman Church approved.
The Roman Church's only hold over the Spanish Inquisition was the appointment of the inquisitor general, the first of which was Tomás de Torquemada.
*Martyrdom Bauer writes experience Jews during Spanish Inquisition: When faced with the demand to murder, to commit incest, or to convert, the Jew was prepared for *martyrdom, Sanctification of Lords - Kiddush Hashem Jews died in name of God. 14 yrs torture death
The popes never reconciled themselves to the practices of that inquisition. Attempts by Sixtus IV to interfere with an inquisition that had become too severe were thwarted by Ferdinand and Isabella who now had a potent tool to subvert the population of Spain. After some fourteen years of torture and death by burning, in 1492, by the decree of expulsion, the Spanish Jews were given the choice of exile or baptism.
Almost all Jews -at least 150,000- chose to leave at this time.
The Jewish refugees from Spain and, a few years later, from Portugal settled in North Africa, Palestine, Holland, France, the Ottoman Empire, and Italy. They became known as Sephardi from Sepharad, the Hebrew word for Spain.
The policy of the church toward the Jews was that they should not be harmed, but that they should live in humiliation. ... Christian art, literature, & religious instruction depicted the Jews in a derogatory manner. Jews sinister vile demonic; enemies of Christ; exclude other/different, outside, isolate-->
15th c. Ghettos
The concept of segregating Jews involuntarily behind walls was developed in ancient times, but it was not actually implemented as a policy until 1462 in Frankfurt, Germany. The idea caught on in the rest of Europe and became the norm in the 16th century. Segregated in certain town areas (later in Italy called ghettos) separation of housing, ghetto to isolate. The ghetto of 16th century Europe permitted Jews to leave during the day and do their business.
1516: 1st ghettp established in Italy; separation to isolate=>loss of dignity.
In end Middle Ages, 3 million Jews; lived in designated quarters; eked out their livelihoods in trades as peddling, money-lending, innkeeping, or tailoring. Within their walls, Jews were autonomous. elected their own leaders, established schools, held trials, made laws, & administered the welfare system. Conditions in the ghetto were often crowded and inadequate - isolation of Jews in ghettos; to Gentiles represented an alien & evil world. Jews of both Western and Eastern Europe created a culture of religious practice, arts and music, language and education.
*Ashkenazi German Jewry Jews living West Central East Europe
*Yiddish Jewish language developed from German Hebrew
European Jews spoke Yiddish, mixture of obsolete German & Hebrew; in Spain, developed Ladino, jargon of Spanish & Hebrew. The Jews also developed sense of community, bond of shared suffering; life centered around synagogue.
Legacy of medieval antisemitism: Demonization of the Jew
To Gentiles Jews represented an alien & evil world.
... caricatures of the late Middle Ages depict Jews as satanic, demonic figures, clearly not humans. Church propaganda had great effect; while the official church sometimes had to defend the lives of Jews against the logical results of its own preachings.17 While their pariah status was justified as Gods will, Jews as a people were permitted to survive. According to New Testament, the Second Coming of Christ will be preceded by conversion of Jews & their in-gathering in Holy Land
Transition, 1350-1550: Renaissance, Reformation:
Renaissance -renewed intellectual activity, fueled by spirit of inquiry; conflict & confrontation with the church.
Humanism - human being at center; scientific revolution=reason
Impact of the Protestant Reformation on European antisemitism
Reformation 16th c. Lutheranism & the Jews in the Early Modern Era
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
*16th c Reformation split in Christendom end relig. unity Lutheran churches
*Martin Luther (1483-1546) leader Protestant movt Germany indulgences 95 theses in 1517
German reformer, founded Protestantism; defied the Catholic church; protested indulgences - churchs solicitation of money as a substitute for penance (a partial remission of the punishment for a sin). ; 95 theses in 1517; excommunicated; Lutheran churches; religious revolt; interpret Bible; destroyed unity of Western Christendom.
Many of the more virulent views associated with medieval anti-Judaism cam be found in writings of Martin Luther.
Luthers pamphlet, Jesus was Born a Jew, expected massive conversion of Jews, who refused. L. became violently anti-Jewish; later pamphlet, Concerning the Jews and their lies, repeated the worst stereotyped vilification. His writings described Jews as the anti-Christ, worse than devils. Jews were poisoners, ritual murderers, and parasites, he preached, and they should be expelled from Germany. His view was that synagogues should all be burned to the ground, and all Jewish books should be seized. urged authorities to raze synagogues, confiscate Jewish property; the 2nd message took hold.
Association of Jews with swine, in the mind poisoned by antisemitism, persists from the 18th c. to the 20th. Luthers anti-Jewish stance would remain a critical source of authority for many Germans during the Nazi era. It would be the revolutionary modern conditions of the 19th c. that would give rise to so many new lines of attack on the Jews: the modern movement of antisemitism from which the 20th c. Nazis and Adolf Hitler would derive most of their views on Jews.
During the Counter-Reformation, Jews were forced into ghettos.
In 16th c. monarchies challenged power of church.
These two very different studies by Griech-Polelle and Stiegmann-Gall (Beth A. Griech-Polelle's _Bishop von Galen: German Catholicism and National Socialism_ (Yale University Press) and Richard Stiegmann-Gall's _The Holy Reich: Nazi Conceptions of Christianity, 1919-1945_ (Cambridge University Press)demonstrate that the categories of 'Christian' and 'Nazi' not only confronted and opposed one another, but also intersected and overlapped in countless complex ways. The common denominator was nationalism, and nationalism of a particular kind, one peculiar to a Germany whose linguistic, cultural and political identity was the legacy of a religious reformer, Martin Luther.18
In the opinion of many scholars, Lutherss anti-Jewish stance would remain a critical source of authority for many Germans during the Nazi era - including ... many sections of the Lutheran clergy. ... it would be the revolutionary modern conditions of the 19th century that would give rise to so many new lines of attack on the Jewish people: the modern movement of antisemitism from which the 20th century Nazis (& Adolf Hitler in particular) would derive most of their ... pernicious ideas about Jews. Nevertheless, the preceding era of medieval anti-Judaism should not be underestimated as an essential precondition for the development of these new versions of an old hatred.19
The Jews of Germany were subjected to many indignities after the crusades, including accusations of poisoning of the wells and ritual murder. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, these slanderous charges often led to massacres. Many German Jews fled eastward, bringing with them a particular dialect (Jüdisch, hence Yiddish), possibly of Bavarian origin.20
During 17th 18th c. Wandering Jew used as Jews forced from country to country.
CG, p. 63-5 Notwithstanding the persistence of popular stereotypes of Jews over the centuries, antisemitism has experienced significant historical metamorphoses. ... pagan communities ... ancient Greeks & Romans ... took offense at the Jews separatism. ...monotheistic faith, special dietary laws... negative stereotype of Jews as hostile to Gentiles was well established even before the triumph of Christianity.
generally accepted that antisemitism intensified during the Christian Middle Ages. ... rival claim of Jews & Christian to the true interpretation of the same Hebrew scriptures gave medieval antisemitism a sharply religious edge. ... crusades ... Black Death generated religious fanaticism & violence directed against Jews. Pogroms, discriminatory laws, & expulsions became more common. ... justified in religious terms as Christian self-defense against a people that had become a plaything of Satan. ... Legacy of medieval antisemitism was the image of the Jews as sinister & demonic enemies of Christ & all who believed in him.
In Middle Ages, Jews persecuted for religious reasons. Medieval antisemitism which depicted Judaism repulsive paved way for modern antisemitism. Deeply etched into the minds and hearts of Christians, the distorted image of the Jew as a contemptible creature persisted in the European mentality into the 20th century.21
*Newspaper clip: Theological paper
... image persisted for centuries, long after secular rationalism ... 17th c. ... Enlightenment ambivalence about the Jews influenced liberals as well as socialists in the 19th & 20th c. ... Liberals sponsored Jewish emancipation ... in expectation Jews would stop being Jews as a result.
Hatred Jews exploited by Nazis had its roots in centuries of contempt & persecution.
*Interrelationship between history of antisemitism & the Holocaust.
By mid-1960, several important works appeared that traced the antisemitic roots of the Holocaust back to its Christian origins.
1st significant book on this subject, written by Jesuit priest, Father Edward Flannery, 1965: The Anguish of the Jews: 23 centuries of antisemitism. Flannery took a blunt & direct approach to this sensitive subject. He trace origins of historic antisemitism to its Greek & Roman roots, but laid principle blame for the institutional development of this horrible & deadly prejudice on the shoulders of Christian Europe.
William Nichollss: Christian Antisemitism: A history of hate (1993)); hatred of Jews exploited by Nazi, had roots in centuries of contempt & persecution: From cross -twisted to swastika; Christian world: 2000 yrs of teaching of contempt: Jews outside Christian world, outcast because denied Jesus messianic son of God;
Jewish devotion to faith of their ancestors construed as challenge & insult to Christianity.
Persistence of popular stereotypes of Jews over centuries.
How the Final Solution Came About
The temple destructions were political acts directed against an independent or semi-independent people. The persecutions during the Middle Ages & the modern period (in Russia in the 1880s, for instance) were due to a mixture of religious, economic, & political factors. In the Nazi case, by contrast, the persecution of the Jews was pure, abstract antisemitic ideology in the context of biological racism, and it became a central factor in Hitlers war against the world. ...
Christian antisemitism, with all its anti-Jewish ideology and bloody persecutions, never produced a genocidal policy, as Steven T. Katz (The Holocaust in Historical context, Oxford University Press, New York, 1994) has argued convincingly, so there is a vast difference between persecutions of Jews in Christendom (and under Islam, where the attitude towards Jews was less murderous) and the genocidal program of the Nazis. ...
The prevalent latent or overt non murderous antisemitic attitudes in the general population, the result of Christian antisemitism that had sought to dehumanize the Jews for many centuries -though never translated into a genocidal program by Christian society- prevented any serious opposition to the Nazis once they had decided to embark on the murder of the Jews.22
In the Middle Ages, Jews had been traditionally, persecuted & humiliated primarily for religious reasons; medieval Christian antisemitism, which depicted the Jew as vile and Judaism as repulsive paved the way for modern antisemitism.
Video: The Longest Hatred (1993) 22 mn ->Tonnerre
PBS hard hitting doc explores roots antisemitism in early Christianity thru revealing interview with theologians clarify highly sensitive issues of Christian antisemitism.
Antisemitism -- Hatred of the Jewish people.
Assimilation -- To accept the culture of another group while giving up one's own.
Auto-da-fe -- The public ceremony at which sentences were pronounced against those who had been tried and found guilty by the Inquisition. This was followed by execution of the sentence by the secular authorities. The sentence was usually death by burning at the stake. (From the Portuguese, meaning, "act of faith").
The Black Death -- A pandemic of the bubonic plague which killed about a quarter of the people of Europe between 1347 and 1350.
Blasphemy -- Words written or spoken which express contempt or irreverence about God.
Blood libel -- The accusation that Jews used the blood of non-Jewish children to bake matzah, their Passover bread.
Bull -- A formal document issued by the Pope.
Covenant: A holy agreement between God and man.
The Crusades -- Nine wars waged by European Christian rulers between 1096 and 1291 to win the Holy Land from the Moslems.
Diaspora: Countries outside of Israel inhabited by Jews.
Edict -- A formal decree or proclamation issued by an authority which has the force of law.
Expulsion -- The act of forcing or driving out people from a city or country.
Forced Baptism -- The act of converting people to Christianity against their will. Jews and Moslems who were forced to become Christians and who secretly practiced their old religion could be executed as heretics.
Ghetto -- A section or a quarter of a city where members of a minority group live because of legal, social or economic pressure.
Heresy -- A belief or opinion which differs from accepted doctrine.
The Inquisition -- A religious court instituted by Pope Gregory IX in 1233 to investigate and punish heresy among Christians. It was officially called Congregation of the Holy Office.
Marranos -- The baptized Jews of Spain and Portugal who were accused of secretly practicing Judaism. (In Spanish, "marrano" literally means "pig" or "hog").
Middle Ages -- The historical period between the fall of Rome at the end of the 5th century and the start of the Renaissance in the 14th century.
Pagan -- A follower of a polytheistic religion (i.e., believes in more than one god).
Pope -- The bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church.
Pogrom -- an organized massacre, often sanctioned or condoned by the government, which also involves the destruction of property.
The Reformation - Effort in16th century to reconstitute the life & teaching of Western Christendom, resulting in the separation of the Protestant churches from the Roman Catholic Church.
Scapegoat - Person or group of persons unfairly blamed for wrongs done by others.
Synod -- A council or assembly of churches or church officials.
Talmud: Comprised of the Mishnah and the Gmara, it is the oral tradition of Jewish law which has been written down and serves as the authority in Jewish law.
Timeline - Who are the Jews?
Context of Ancient Israelite religion: ca. 2000-587 BCE
The Hebrews - Abraham, Moses, monotheism. Monarchy, David
c. 2000-1700 Israel's Patriarchal period
ca. 1900 BCE Abraham, organize nomadic people into 12 tribes - Early Hebrews
ca. 1850/1750/1700 Abraham & Sarah, Isaak & Ishmael; the "Abrahamic covenant"
Traditions of Jacob/Israel and the 12 Patriarchs
ca. 1792-1750 Hammurabi
ca. 1300-1200 Mosaic period (Israel). Moses
ca. 1250-1200 Exodus from Egypt, Sinai Torah; monotheism, 10 Commandments
ca. 1230 Israelites invade Canaan & settle - Canaan Entry
ca. 1200-1050/1000 Period of the Judges (Israel)
ca. 1050-450 Hebrew prophets (Samuel-Malachi)
ca. 1000-587 Monarchical period in Israel
c. 1000-900 Hebrew tribes united under 3 kings: Saul, David, & Solomon
ca. 1030-1010 Saul (transitional king)
ca. 1010-970 David, of the tribe of Judah; making Jerusalem his capital
ca. 970-931 Solomon, and building of the Temple
ca. 931 Secession of Northern Kingdom (Israel) from Southern Kingdom (Judah)
928-722 Divided monarchy: Israel & Judah
750-725 Israelite Prophets Amos, Hosea, Isaiah
722/721 Northern Kingdom (Israel) destroyed by Assyrians
612-538 Neo-Babylonian ("Chaldean") period
ca. 600-580 Judean Prophets Jeremiah and Ezekiel
587/586 Southern Kingdom -Judah &Temple destroyed; Babylonian exile/captivity
Judaism after the Babylonian Exile: ca. 538 BCE-70 CE
538 Cyrus conquers Babylon; Edict of Cyrus (first return from Exile)
520-515 Jerusalem "2nd" Temple rebuilt. 450-400 Reformation by Ezra &Nehemiah
ca. 450 Torah Pentateuch=1st division of Jewish Scriptures) recognition as Scripture
333/331 Hellenistic (Greek) period. Alexander the Great conquers Palestine
ca. 320-168 Judaism under Greek Ptolemies of Egypt & Seleukids of Syria
ca. 250 "Septuagint" translation of Torah into Greek
168/167-63 BCE Jewish Maccabean revolt & Hasmonean rule
167-164 Judah Maccabees revolt; victory over Syrian King Antiochus Epiphanes rededication of the Temple - Feast of Dedication/Lights: Hanukkah
The Jews in the Roman Empire. Christianity
63 BCE Rome (Pompey) annexes Palestine; entered Jerusalem
ca. 146 bce-400 ce Rule of Rome
37-4 BCE Herod the Great -Jewish Roman ruler of Palestine, loyal to Rome
Hillel & Shammai (Jewish sages): turn of the era
6 CE Judah, where most Jews, became Roman province, known as Palestine
before 4 bce-ca. 30 ce Jesus "the Christ" of Nazareth, born in Bethlehem
Jesus trial and crucifixion during governor Pontius Pilatus
36-64 CE Paul "the apostle" (Jewish "Christian")
40s-60s Pauls missionary journeys to convert Gentiles
ca. 37-100 CE Josephus (Jewish leader, historian)
Early Christian Period of Development: 30-311 CE
Rabbinic Jewish Period of Talmud Development: 70-400/600 CE
66 -73 CE First Jewish Revolt against Rome; Jerusalem in rebellion -Jewish War
70 CE 2nd Temple & Jerusalem destroyed; Masada fell
Establishment of Jewish center for study at Yavneh/Jamnia
ca. 73 (Yohanan ben Zakkai), with rabbinic ordination
114-117 Jewish Revolts against Rome outside Palestine
132-135 Bar Kokhba rebellion (Second Jewish Revolt)
suppressed by Rome; Jews expulsed from Jerusalem
ca. 200 Mishnah compiled/edited under Judah the Prince
337 Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity
4th cent. Christianity official religion of the Roman Empire
325-1517 Consolidation & Dominance of Classical Christianity
380/391 Christianity becomes the official religion of Roman Empire
ca. 400-600 Jewish Babylonian Talmud edited
476 Overthrow of the last Roman emperor in the west
* "Medieval" Period in the West: ca. 600-1500
Reception & Development of Muhammad's Islamic Message: 610-1258
ca. 570-632 Muhammad ("the Prophet" of Islam); Quranic revelations: ca 610
622 The hijra (emigration) from Mecca to Medina
590-604 Pope Gregory the Great, founder of medieval papacy
Papacy urged peaceful coexistence and prayers for Jewish conversion.
7th century Islam. Palestine conquered by the Muslim Arab
638 Jews permitted to return to Jerusalem under Islam
732 Islam repulsed at Tours (France), gateway to Europe
742-814 Charlemagne (France; Holy Roman Empire: 800)
ca. 950-1150 Golden Age in Spain (Islamic Umayyad dynasty)
end of 10th c. centers of Jewish scholarship in Diaspora: North Africa & Muslim Spain
Byzantine and Islamic worlds vacillated between persecution & toleration
900-1150 Jews, religious minority, excluded from medieval society in Europe
1053/54 split -schism between Latin Roman & Greek (Byzantine) Christian Churches
1040-1105 Rashi (Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac; Jewish sage)
1095-1291 Crusades (Christian warfare with Islam in Palestine)
11th cent. Attacks on Jews increased. 1st Crusade: attacks on Germany Jews 1135-1204 Maimonides (Rabbi Moses ben Maimon; Jewish scholar)
1198-1216 Pope Innocent III (Christian)
ca. 1230 Inquisition by Christians in Spain
1225-1274 Thomas Aquinas (Christian scholar)
1290/1291 Expulsion of Jews from England
1300-1500 Italian Renaissance
1306-1394 Expulsions of Jews from France
1453 Fall of Constantinople (Istanbul) to Ottoman Muslims
1456 Gutenberg Bible printed (invention of printing press)
1492 Ferdinand & Isabella, Spain, ordered all Jews to convert or leave
1492, 1496 Christian expulsion of Jews from Spain, Portugal
Reformation and Post-Reformation Christian Period: 1517-present
Jewish Transitions towards Modernity: ca.1550-1700
1500-1920 Dominance of Ottoman Muslim Empire in Turkey, etc
1542-1546 Luther preaches against Jews
1516, 1555 Jewish ghettos instituted (Venice, Rome)
1626-1676 Shabbatai Zvi (Jewish "messianic" leader)
1632-1677 Baruch/Benedict Spinoza (scholar, converted Jew)
1654 Arrival of Jews in New Amsterdam (= New York, America)
1655 Jews readmitted to England by Oliver Cromwell
1670 Jews expelled from Vienna
Copyright Fall 1999; Fall 2003 Edith Shaked
Credit/Source: The Holocaust - A guide for Teachers. http://www.remember.org/guide/
1 Bauer, Yehuda, A Past that Will Not Go Away, in The Holocaust and History - The Knowon, the Unknown, the Disputed and the Reexamined; eds: Michael Berenbaum and Abraham J. Peck; published in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum; 1998
2 Yehuda Bauer, A History Of The Holocaust (Franklin Watts, 1982), Preface.
3 Yehuda Bauer, A History Of The Holocaust (Franklin Watts, 1982), p. 4.
4 Yehuda Bauer, A History Of The Holocaust (Franklin Watts, 1982), p. 6.
5 Yehuda Bauer, A History Of The Holocaust (Franklin Watts, 1982), pp. 7-8.
6 Yehuda Bauer, A History Of The Holocaust (Franklin Watts, 1982), p. 7
8 Christian persecution of Jews. http://www.ushmm.org/research/center/persecution/
10 Perry, Western Civilization, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1992, v. 1, p. 168
11 Yehuda Bauer, A History Of The Holocaust (Franklin Watts, 1982), pp. 8-9.
12 Perry, Western Civilization, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1992, v. 1, p. 233.
13 Perry, Western Civilization, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1992, v. 1, p. 233.
14 Yehuda Bauer, A History Of The Holocaust (Franklin Watts, 1982), pp. 8-9.
15 Yehuda Bauer, A History Of The Holocaust (Franklin Watts, 1982), pp. 8-9.
16 Perry, Western Civilization, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1992, v. 1, p. 233.
17 Yehuda Bauer, A History Of The Holocaust (Franklin Watts, 1982), p. 10.
18 Review by Daniel Johnson, TLS of November 28, 2003
19 Landau, Ronnie S. The Nazi Holocaust. London - New York: I.B. Tauris & Co Ltd Publishers,1992, p. 47
21 Perry, Western Civilization, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1992, v. 1, pp. 232-233.
22 Yehuda Bauer, Rethinking the Holocaust, Yale University Press, 2001, p. 27-8