The ‘War against the Jews’ in Poland: Ghettoization - Isolation, Persecution---> Dehumanization
Exporting Nazi policies. Bureaucracy of Evil


War against Jews parallel to WWII; Sept 39, push into Poland -2 million Jews, conquest of other countries: more under German rule. Antisemitism in Poland. Jews not Poles; a race. War smokescreen for deportations, ghettos, labor camps, concentration camps. Yiddish from medieval German, universal language of central, eastern Europ. Jews
Deportations, internment in ghetto: Isolate & Destroy
Henrich Himmler
Gestapo chief, SS head responsible to implement Final Solution of Jewish question: 1. creates special task forces of Security Police within SS, the Einsatzgruppen special action squads, mobile killing units against all political enemies, behind front, under Reinhard Heydrich Security Police Chief; 2. orders census to identify Jews & to establish in ghetto, Judenrate -Jewish administrative councils implement Nazi decrees. 2 wars: one against western European Allies, the other against Jews. Repressive regime: economic measures robbed Jews of means of livelihood; policy of humiliation, discrimination & persecution resulted in dehumanization
Sept 39, Jews in forced labor camps; deportations.
10/30 British report on atrocities at Buchenwald camp
Himmler-->Heydrich’s decree Sept 21 ‘39: identify, isolate, contain=policy internment of Polish Jews in ghettos near railroads for ‘final goal;’ Nov 23, 39 law to wear white armband with yellow Star of David easily identify Polish Jews when Nazis began issuing orders establishing ghettos. Adolf Eichmann chief engineer of system during 1940 & 41: cattle trains taking Jews from all Europe into sealed ghetto -from medieval times, traditional solution, isolate, separate them from Christians
New ghetto designed for death ghetto inhabitants slaves -free labor for German industry in factories alongside or within ghetto walls; many died of exhaustion. Heydrich creates Judenrate -Jewish councils of influential elders for registering Jews, their property, managing housing, health, police, and sanitation in ghetto, providing slave labor. 1st major ghetto: Lodz; by 1941: 200,000 with 5000 Gypsies. Warsaw ghetto 10/40: largest 500,000. Nazis created horrible inhuman conditions, deliberate policy: overcrowding, lack of fuel & sanitation, malnutrition, starvation, and disease caused daily fatalities in ghetto. Despite death threat, inhabitants kept their spirit by creating underground social, religious, educational, and political organizations, publishing newspapers, classes, conducting religious services. Dr. Emanuel Ringelblum 1879-1942 created 12/40 Oneg Shabbat -secret ghetto Warsaw archive to preserve history of ghetto life, document Nazi inhumanity: convinced artists, physicians, journalists, rabbis to write diaries, reports; 2 cans found
Janusz Korczak 1879-1942 head Jewish orphanage in Warsaw; exemption from deportation to Treblinka, he voluntarily went to his death with children when deported
Theresienstadt ghetto -Terezin: Nov 24, ‘41, near Prague, Czechoslovakia, Nazis developed ‘model’ ghetto, to counter rumors -to hide the truth of murder of Jews; July 1944 they produced a documentary propaganda film
1939-45 Jews forced into 356 ghettos in Poland, Soviet Union, Baltic States, Czechoslovakia, Rumania, Hungary. By end of WWII, 3 million Polish Jews were murdered