World War I & aftermath. Weimar Republic, 1918-32

Great War 1914-18: nationalism, alliances, imperialism, militarism. Armenian genocide. 1917: Balfour Declaration
Total war, state’s commitment --> totalitarian ideologies:
1917 Russian revolution, Stalin, communism: extreme left
1922 Fascism in Italy, Mussolini: extreme right
Nazism - from radical right wing ultra nationalists
Antisemitism; Jews blamed; quota; Ford & Protocols;
“New/Jew Deal;” Jews -unpopular minority. Joint

Germany. Rise of mass politics. Political spectrum

Pan-German League: for German nationalism; antisemitic
*Radical right, ultra nationalist: totalitarian dictatorship, single party, terror, conformity, national glory, war, leader
-traditional conservatives: army, civil service, industrialists
*Radical left: social equality, communists, for revolution
*Socialists: moderate liberal left
Rosa Luxembourg: leader radical left socialist, formed German communist party in Dec. 1918; murdered
Freikorps: paramilitary of right; war veterans
Weimar Republic & weaknesses 14 yrs, 1919-33: German democratic state by Social Democratic party, moderate left
*1st time parliamentary democracy: Reichstag, Chancellor
Article 48:
emergency presidential power, no constitution
Paris peace settlement: Palestine under British mandate
*Treaty of Versailles June 1919, with Germany:
*War Guilt Clause, Art. 231 shamed Germans blamed for causing the war; reparations; lost of Prussia to Polish state.
*Stab in back used by Hitler to undermine govt:
defeat by internal enemies, democrats, Jews ... Economic difficulties:
*Inflation, 1922-23: lot of paper money to pay France