III. Aftermath and Revival
Bauer, chapter 14
* The Courage to Remember http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/resources/courage/links.html
* The Aftermath http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/index.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005129
* Israel. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/israel.htm
Objectives: Students will be able to describe and explain the aftermath of the Holocaust; i.e. the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials, the United Nation's Genocide Convention, and the return or resettlement of the Jews.
Refugees; antisemitism. Displaced Persons; UN; UNRRA; Palestine; DP camps; quota; illegal Jewish immigration; Exodus; Nuremberg Trials; crimes against humanity. partition of Palestine; Israel; genocide; rocket program; 1952 German reparations; genocide; Simon Wiesenthal; Adolf Eichman; revisionism; Neo-Nazi; the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum; Days of Remembrance; Swiss National Bank.
II. Multiple-Choice Questions
1. Two large and on-going international needs emerged as World War II was ending: 1) retribution for the _______, and 2) the resettlement of people uprooted by the war
2. Sixty million refugees were made homeless by the war. And there were an estimated eleven million intended civilian victims, murdered by the _____ because of their race, religion, sexual preference, physical or mental handicap, ideological opposition, or resistance to Nazi genocide
3. After the surrender of the Nazis, Germany was divided into four zones of occupation, controlled respectively by the United States, Britain, France, and the ________________
a) Soviet Union
4. The Allies liberated the camps, and what they found there left an indelible impression. The camps were littered with thousands of _____
5. Thousands of these survivors were in such poor condition that despite the offering of medical care and sufficient food, they _______ within days of their liberation
6. Liberation from camps did not mean liberation from persecution, ________, loneliness, and overwhelming sadness. For many Jews there was nothing left to return to; two out of every three European Jews had been murdered
7. By the end of the war there were about 10 million "________________- who had been driven out of their native countries by the hostilities
a) Displaced Persons
b) homeless persons
8. Those unable to be repatriated, were put into DP camps administered by the _________ Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA)
a) United Nations
b) League of Nations
9. Surviving Jews streamed into Germany following the war, because the presence of the _________Army in Germany offered safety
b) United States
10. The UNRRA Team included professionals from France, Norway, Australia, Holland, the United States, and a group of five people representing the Jewish Agency for
11. Post-war D.P. camps were models of bureaucratic rigidity, confusion, and Allied bickering. Conditions were _____________
12. Many survivors were still in limbo, waiting for an opportunity to emigrate from
13. The United States and Britain were the two countries in a position to help resolve this crisis. However, the U.S. was reluctant to increase its immigration
14. Britain, which held _________ as a mandated territory, was hesitant to take a stand that would alienate the Arabs, who did not want to see _______ become a Jewish homeland
15. Organizations, many with a ___________ focus, formed within the camps. Some Jews wished to move to the envisioned Jewish homeland
16. President Truman requested that the British grant 100,000 visas to Jews to enter Palestine, under British Mandate; the British granted only 6,000 visas; but 40,000 other Jews, including 30,000 who had lived in the DP camps, emigrated to Palestine _____
17. *In 1947, the ship "_________" with 4,500 Holocaust survivors headed for Palestine, was turned back to Germany by the British.
b) St Louis
Retribution for the perpetrators
18. The Allied troops were so outraged at what they found at concentration camps that they demanded German civilians directly confront the atrocities. U.S. troops led _______ tours of concentration camps to the neighboring population.
19. International and national trials conducted in the Soviet Union, Germany, Austria, Italy, and other European countries indicted hundreds of __________
b) war criminals
20. As early as October 1943, the Allied countries created a War Crimes Commission and began the process of listing war criminals with the intent to prosecute. Of the many post-war trials, those held at __________ are the most well known.
a) Nuremberg b) Berlin
21. In Nuremberg, a war-ravaged town in southern Germany, during 1945-46, twenty-one of twenty-four indicted Nazi leaders stood trial in the first series of what became known as the
a) Nuremberg Trials
b) Berlin Trials
22. The International Military Tribunal consisted of eight judges, two each from the four Allied nations: the United States, _______, France, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
a) Italy b) Great Britain
23. The charges brought against these men were conspiracy, crimes against peace, war crimes, and
a) crimes against humanity
24. Violations of international agreements governing the conduct of war, such as mistreatment of prisoners, murder, or forced labor of occupied civilian populations
a) War crimes
25. Committing crimes against people, such as murder, deportation, and religious persecution, regardless of whether the action violated domestic law at the time
b) Crimes against humanity
26. Among the International Military Tribunal's conclusions were the following:
a) A war of aggression, in any form, is prohibited under international law
b) The individual is responsible for crimes carried out under superior orders
c) a & b
27. In 1946, with newspaper and radio coverage broadcasting news globally, much of the world first learned the full extent of the "Crimes against Peace, War Crimes, and Crimes against Humanity." Half of the 22 defendants were sentenced to
28. There were Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings held between December 1946, and April 1949, which tried 177 persons. For many of the defendants, the legal defense was that they were "only following orders." The Nuremberg judges _________ that justification
29. The British held trials of the commandant and staff of the Bergen-Belsen camp, those responsible for forced labor, & the owners and executives of the manufacturer of
a) Zyklon B
30. The United States government participated in several conspiracies to help war criminals elude justice. The U.S. ___________in the 1950s and 1960s was heavily influenced by the work of German rocket scientists who had participated in war crimes
a) rocket program
b) math program
31. The Allies required the German government to begin making payments to war victims. In 1952, West Germany, the newly-formed democratic nation, signed a treaty with ________ to pay reparations
Revival: Building New Lives. 1948 - Israel
32. Victory day came very late for the __________people. Great communities had been wiped off the face of the earth. The terror and the suffering defy description
33. The survivors -men and women, uprooted from their homes and their former lives- undertook the great effort of ________ themselves
34. Culturally, the Jewish people had lost a vital part of their heritage. The elders and rabbis, the culmination of thousands of years of ________, were gone
35. Their horrific experiences notwithstanding, the Shoah/Holocaust survivors were fiercely motivated to rebuild their personal and national lives. The devastation and the ashes gave rise to yearnings for a home from which they would never again be forced to flee. _________ and the struggle to settle there became a focal issue for the survivors.
36. The British had severely restricted Jewish immigration into Palestine in an effort to appease Arabs of that area. The British turned to the _________, hoping that they could resolve the thorny issue in Palestine
a) United Nations
b) United States
37. On November 29, 1947, the United Nations General Assembly, by an overwhelming majority, recommended the _________of Palestine. The Jews accepted this plan, but the Arab League rejected it
38. On May 14, 1948, the Jews proclaimed the independent State of ________as theirs, and the British withdrew from Palestine
39. The next day, _____ neighboring Arab nations attacked Israel - Arab opposition resulted in the Israeli War for Independence; an armistice ended the war in early 1949
40. Having considered the declaration by the General Assembly of the United Nations in its resolution 96 (I) dated 11 December 1946 that ______ is a crime under international law... Article 1. The Contracting Parties confirm that _____, whether committed in time of peace or in time of war, is a crime under international law which they undertake to prevent & to punish
a) conspiracy b) genocide
41. An on-going aspect of the aftermath of the Holocaust has been the quest to track down and bring to justice Nazi war criminals who escaped. _________ has devoted much of his life to hunting down Nazis in hiding and prosecuting them
a) Janus Korchak b) Simon Wiesenthal
42. In May 1960, __________, in charge of the Nazi deportation units which sent millions of Jews to their deaths, was kidnapped by Israeli agents in Argentina, to face trial in Israel
a) Martin Borman
b) Adolf Eichmann
43. He was charged with crimes against Jews, Poles, Slavs, Gypsies, & others, including their arrest and imprisonment, deportation to extermination camps, and murder. He was sentenced to death, and _________ at midnight May 31, 1962
44. The trial brought to light, especially for a new generation of _________ and Germans, as well as for the entire world, the brutality and inhumanity of the Nazis.
45. There exist in the United States organizations, that deny that the Holocaust ever occurred. This view , despite the overwhelming documentation to the contrary, is called "______."
46. Many other leaders of these groups assert that the Holocaust was justified then and would be justified now. African-Americans, ______, and other minorities would be invited to join the Jews in the ovens according to Neo-Nazi doctrine
47. On occasion, ______ have been convicted of crimes ranging from murder, vandalism of synagogues and churches, to the intimidation of Jews and other minorities by threats of violence and actual physical attacks
b) Hitlers Youth
48. The purpose of the United States (U.S.) Memorial Council established in 1980 by the United States Congress, was to plan and build the ______________ in Washington, D.C
a) United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
b) Washington Monument
49. The Governor of Pennsylvania annually schedules a Holocaust observance program ceremony in the Capitol, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Jewish Coalition, to commemorate the "______"
a) Days of Remembrance
b) Days of Mourning
50. A law to implement the United Nations Treaty outlawing________, was enacted by the Congress on October 19, 1988. The law provides penalties of up to life imprisonment and a fine of up to $1 million as punishment for certain actions with a "specific intent to destroy, in whole or in substantial part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group."
51. In 1997, evidence is emerging of the complicated _______ transactions between the Nazis and the European countries and businesses that profited by the genocide. Released on May 7, 1997, a United States study, directed by Commerce Undersecretary Stuart Eizenstat, describes "one of the greatest thefts by a government in history."
a) financial b) social
52. The _________ Document reports on U.S. and Allied efforts to recover and restore gold and other assets stolen or hidden by Germany during World War II.
53. This document report shows that between January 1939, and June 1945, Nazi Germany transferred $400 million (equivalent to $3.9 billion in today's dollars) worth of looted gold to the ________, in exchange for foreign currency and materials vital to Germany's war machine
a) Swiss National Bank
b) French National Bank
54. This document report also documents that gold, jewelry, coins and melted down dental fillings of concentration camp victims were taken, mixed with plundered bank gold, and resmelted into gold bars that were traded to ______
b) other countries
55. There are still many unresolved issues related to the _______taking of property, including real estate and works of art, from the victims of the Holocaust
56. For example, the ________ owns pieces of art which were confiscated from Jews by the Nazis. Many of these Jews were sent to the camps and never returned to claim their property
a) Louvre Museum
b) Quai dOrsay
57. A March 1997 lawsuit accused seven existing ____________ that conduct business in the United States today of failing to honor insurance policies bought before the war. These German, French, Italian, and Austrian companies are charged with acting in bad faith and enriching themselves at the expense of Holocaust victims.
a) insurance companies
b) health companies
58. PBS presents "Nazi Gold," a Frontline site exploring _________'s wartime actions and role as banker and financial broker for Nazi Germany.
59. It requires courage to remember the Holocaust: to read the unimaginable testimonies to the twisted, vicious inventiveness of the human mind; to move into that shadow of doubt that the Holocaust continues to cast across the _________of all people and nations
60. But if the lost lives of these millions are to have an enduring meaning, we must _________ and be vigilant. Then the ashes and unmarked graves of these victims can become the sanctified ground from which human hope, tolerance and moral courage will rise
b) remember, be vigilant and speak-up
Copyright Fall 1999; January 2004 Edith Shaked